Coordinator: Helga Malmin Binningsbø

​​​​The Governance research group looks at the interplay between aspects of governance and peace at the domestic and the international level. Governance is defined very broadly to include the formal institutions that regulate recruitment to and execution of political power as well as less formal structures and processes, including how decisions are implemented, human rights protection or violation, and informal power structures.

​Research questions addressed by the group include:

  • What kind of political institutions are particularly likely to engender political violence, human rights violations and violations of countries' own constitutional regulations?
  • How do various political institutions influence the durability of peace after civil war?
  • Do different political institutions foster different types of collective violence?
  • How is the prevalence of violence affected by the effectiveness of law enforcement and societal means of controlling violence, and how does violence in turn change the practices and effectiveness of law enforcement?
  • When are conflict-related justice processes, such as trials, truth commissions, reparations, amnesties, purges, and exiles implemented, and what are their effects?
  • Is there a difference between justice processes implemented during and after armed conflict?
  • Why do governments choose different justice processes at different points during conflict trajectories and after war?
  • What is the relative importance of institutions of constraint, institutions of election/selection, and other aspects of governance to ensure non-violent politics?
  • What are the long-term effects on political violence of changes to political institutions?
  • How are the effects of political institutions on political violence mediated through stimulation of economic growth, reduction of intergroup inequality, property rights protection, and struggles over the setup of political institutions themselves?
  • How do global institutions of governance (e.g., the UN) affect political violence within and betwen countries?
  • What are the likely future trajectories of governance and political violence?

The research group will also be engaged in collecting data on governance- and human rights-related issues, such as indicators capturing aspects of political institutions and data on electoral violence and electoral fraud.


Current Projects

Past Projects

Past Events


Recent publications

Gjerløw, Haakon & Magnus Rasmussen (2022) Revolution, Elite Fear and Electoral Institutions, Comparative Politics. DOI: 10.5129/001041522X16316387001621.

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Gjerløw, Haakon & Magnus Rasmussen (2022) Revolution, Elite Fear and Electoral Institutions, Comparative Politics. DOI: 10.5129/001041522X16316387001621.
Butcher, Charles; Jessica Maves Braithwaite; Jonathan Pinckney; Eirin Haugseth; Ingrid Vik Bakken & Marius Swane Wishman (2022) Introducing the Anatomy of Resistance Campaigns (ARC) dataset, Journal of Peace Research. DOI: 10.1177/00223433211029512.
Gerring, John; Haakon Gjerløw & Carl Henrik Knutsen (2022) Regimes and industrialization, World Development 152.
Thomson, Henry; Halvard Buhaug; Henrik Urdal & Elisabeth Lio Rosvold (2021) Group organization, elections and urban political mobilization in the developing world, Democratization. DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2021.1944117.
Dyrstad, Karin; Kristin M. Bakke & Helga Malmin Binningsbø (2021) Perceptions of Peace Agreements and Political Trust in Post-War Guatemala, Nepal, and Northern Ireland, International Peacekeeping. DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2020.1869541.
Dyrstad, Karin & Solveig Hillesund (2020) Explaining Support for Political Violence: Grievance and Perceived Opportunity, Journal of Conflict Resolution 64(9): 1724–1753.
Hultin, Niklas & Tone Sommerfelt (2020) Anticipatory tribalism: accusatory politics in the ‘New Gambia’, The Journal of Modern African Studies 58(2): 257–279.
Tellander, Ebba & Cindy Horst (2019) A Foreign Policy Actor of Importance? The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Shaping Norwegian Policy towards Somalia, Foreign Policy Analysis 1(1): 136–154.
Dyrstad, Karin & Helga Malmin Binningsbø (2019) Between Punishment and Impunity: Public Support for Reactions against Perpetrators in Guatemala, Nepal and Northern Ireland, International Journal of Transitional Justice. DOI: 10.1093/ijtj/ijy032: 1–30.
Cunningham, David; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch; Belen Gonzalez; Dragana Vidovic & Peter B. White (2017) Words and Deeds: From Incompatibilities to Outcomes in Anti-Government Disputes, Journal of Peace Research 54(4): 468–483.
Beardsley, Kyle; David Cunningham & Peter B. White (2017) Resolving Civil Wars Before they Start: The United Nations Security Council and Conflict Prevention, British Journal of Political Science 47(3): 675–697.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Tore Wig (2017) Autocratic Elections: Stabilizing Tool or Force for Change?, World Politics 69(1): 98–143.
Buhaug, Halvard; Lars-Erik Cederman & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2016) Ulikhet, eksklusjon og borgerkrig [Inequality, Exclusion, and Civil War], Politica 48(1): 12–29.
White, Peter B.; Dragana Vidovic; Belén González; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & David Cunningham (2015) Nonviolence as a Weapon of the Resourceful: From Claims to Tactics in Mobilization, Mobilization 20(4): 471–491.
Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv (2015) The role of international organizations in regime transitions: How IGOs can tie a dictator’s hands, Conflict Management and Peace Science. DOI: 10.1177/0738894215599554.
Hegre, Håvard & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Governance and Conflict Relapse, Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(6): 984–1016.
Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv & Michael Weintraub (2015) Bargaining Between Rebel Groups and the Outside Option of Violence, Terrorism and Political Violence 27(3): 557–580.
Beardsley, Kyle; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & Nigel Lo (2015) Roving Bandits? The Geographical Evolution of African Armed Conflicts, International Studies Quarterly 59(3): 503–516.
Beardsley, Kyle & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Peacekeeping as Conflict Containment, International Studies Review 17(1): 67–89.
Asal, Victor; Ken Cousins & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Making Ends Meet: Combining Organizational Data in Contentious Politics, Journal of Peace Research 52(1): 134–138.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Institutional Characteristics and Regime Survival: Why Are Semi-Democracies Less Durable Than Autocracies and Democracies?, American Journal of Political Science 59(3): 656–670.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik (2014) Income Growth and Revolutions, Social Science Quarterly 95(4): 920–937.
Basedau, Matthias; Birte Pfeiffer & Johannes Vüllers (2014) Bad Religion? Religion, Collective Action, and the Onset of Armed Conflict in Developing Countries, Journal of Conflict Resolution 60(2): 226–255.
Buhaug, Halvard; Lars-Erik Cederman & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2014) Square Pegs in Round Holes: Inequalities, Grievances, and Civil War, International Studies Quarterly 58(2): 418–431.
Holtermann, Helge (2014) Relative Capacity and the Spread of Rebellion: Insights from Nepal, Journal of Conflict Resolution 60(3): 501–529.
Hansen, Susanne & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Normative power and organized hypocrisy: European Union member states’ arms export to Libya, European Security 24(2): 264–286.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin (2013) Power sharing, peace and democracy: Any obvious relationships?, International Area Studies Review 16(1): 89–112.
Hegre, Håvard; Joakim Karlsen; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; Håvard Strand & Henrik Urdal (2013) Predicting Armed Conflict, 2010–2050, International Studies Quarterly 57(2): 250–270.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2013) Actor Fragmentation and Civil War Bargaining: How Internal Divisions Generate Civil Conflict, American Journal of Political Science 57(3): 659–672.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin; Cyanne Loyle ; Scott Gates & Jon Elster (2012) Armed Conflict and Post-Conflict Justice, 1946–2006: A Dataset, Journal of Peace Research 49(5): 731–740.
Dahl, Marianne & Bjørn Høyland (2012) Peace on Quicksand? Challenging the Conventional Wisdom About Economic Growth and Post-Conflict Risks, Journal of Peace Research 49(3): 423–429.
Gates, Scott; Håvard Hegre; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Håvard Strand (2012) Development Consequences of Armed Conflict, World Development 40(9): 1713–1722.
Holtermann, Helge (2012) Explaining the Development–Civil War Relationship, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(1): 56–78.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Siri Aas Rustad (2012) Sharing the Wealth: A Pathway to Peace or a Trail to Nowhere?, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(5): 547–566.
Hegre, Håvard; Lisa Hultman & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2011) Simulating the Effect of Peacekeeping Operations 2010–2035, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6589: 325–332.
Hegre, Håvard; John R. Oneal & Bruce M. Russett (2010) Trade Does Promote Peace: New Simultaneous Estimates of the Reciprocal Effects of Trade and Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 47(6): 763–774.
Østby, Gudrun; Clionadh Raleigh & Håvard Hegre (2009) Poverty and Civil War Events: A Disaggregated Study of Liberia, Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(4): 298–623.
Hegre, Håvard (2009) Trade Dependence or Size Dependence?: The Gravity Model of Trade and the Liberal Peace, Conflict Management and Peace Science 26(1): 26–45.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Kendra Dupuy (2009) Using Power-Sharing to Win a War: The Implementation of the Lomé Agreement in Sierra Leone, Africa Spectrum 44(3): 87–107.
Hegre, Håvard (2008) Gravitating toward War: Preponderance May Pacify, but Power Kills, Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(4): 566–589.
Marsh, Nicholas (2007) Taming the Tools of Violence, Journal of Public Health Policy 28(4): 401–409.
Sambanis, Nicholas & Håvard Hegre (2006) Sensitivity Analysis of the Empirical Literature on Civil War Onset, Journal of Conflict Resolution 50(4): 508–535.

PhD Thesis

Dahl, Marianne (2017) Pockets of Opportunity: State Dissident Interactions and Regime Change. PhD thesis, Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.


Gjerløw, Haakon; Carl Henrik Knutsen; Tore Wig & Matthew Wilson (2021) One Road to Riches? How State Building and Democratization Affect Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Elements in Political Economy.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2014) Inside the Politics of Self-Determination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gates, Scott & Kaushik Roy (2014) Unconventional Warfare in South Asia, Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Farnham: Ashgate.

Book Chapter

Hegre, Håvard & Idunn Kristiansen (2016) Global, State, and Individual Security in Quantitative Conflict Research, in Schlag, Gabi; Julian Junk; & Christopher Daase, eds, Transformations of Security Studies: Dialogues, Diversity and Discipline. New York: Routledge (190–215).
Gates, Scott & Kaushik Roy (2015) lntroduction: Armies, Warfare and the State in Afghanistan from Pre-modern Times to the Present Era, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building In Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (1–20).
Gates, Scott; Kaushik Roy; Marianne Dahl & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Continuity and Change in Asymmetric Warfare in Afghanistan: From the Mughals to the Americans, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (21–42).
Roy, Kaushik (2015) Great Mughals, Warfare and COIN in Afghanistan, 1520-1707, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (43–78).
Checkel, Jeffrey T. (2014) Mechanisms, process, and the study of international institutions, in Bennett, Andrew; & Jeffrey T. Checkel, eds, Process Tracing: from Metaphor to Analytic Tool. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (74–97).
Checkel, Jeffrey T. (2014) Identity, Europe, and the world beyond public spheres, in Thomas Risse, ed., European Public Spheres: Politics is Back. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (227–246).
Hegre, Håvard & Helge Holtermann (2013) Poverty and Conflict, in Brown, Graham K.; & Arnim Langer, eds, Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (39–58).
Roy, Kaushik (2013) From the Mamluks to the Mansabdars: A Social History of Military Service in South Asia, c. 1500 to c. 1650, in Fighting for a Living: a Comparative History of Military Labour 1500-2000. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (81–114).
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2012) Warlordism: Three Biographies From Southeastern Afghanistan, in Suhrke, Astri; & Mats Berdal, eds, The Peace In Between: Post-War Violence and Peacebuilding. London: Routledge (173–191).
de Soysa, Indra (2012) The Capitalist Civil Peace: Some Theory and Empirical Evidence, in Lujala, Päivi; & Siri Aas Rustad, eds, High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan (437–459).
Kreutz, Joakim ; Manuela Torre & Nicholas Marsh (2011) Regaining State Control: Arms and Violence in Post-conflict Countries, in Greene , Owen ; & Nicholas Marsh, eds, Small Arms, Crime and Conflict Global Governance and the Threat of Armed Violence. London: Routledge (64–76).
Marsh, Nicholas & Owen Greene (2011) Governance and Small Arms and Light Weapons, in Nicholas Marsh, ed., Small Arms, Crime and Conflict Global Governance and the Threat of Armed Violence. London: Routledge (163–182).
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2010) Afghanistan: Civil Society Between Modernity and Tradition, in Thania Paffenholz , ed., Civil Society and Peacebuilding: a Critical Assessment. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner (235–257).
Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Håvard Hegre; & Håvard Strand (2009) Democracy and Civil War, in Handbook of War Studies III. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (155–192).
Hegre, Håvard & Hanne Fjelde (2009) Post-Conflict Democracy and Conflict Recurrence, in Hewitt, J. Joseph; Jonathan Wilkenfeld; & Ted Robert Gurr, eds, Peace and Conflict 2010. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers (79–90).
Marsh, Nicholas (2006) The Nordic Countries and Conventional Arms Control: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons, in The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy. Oxford: SIPRI.

Edited Volume

Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, (2015) War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury. Bloomsbury Studies in Military History.

Popular Article

Nilsen, Marte; Kristin Dalen & Kristin Jesnes (2014) Farlig folketelling, Dagens Næringsliv, 8 October.

Master Thesis

Arnesen, Petter Kristiansen (2019) Hit ‘em Where It Hurts: Measuring and Testing the Impact of Economic Nonviolent Strategies on Democratization. MA thesis, Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, Bergen.
Saxegaard, Sverke (2019) The War That Wasn’t: Explaining Relative Peacefulness. MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Stiansen, Øyvind (2013) Post-Conflict Democracy for Durable Peace. MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Conference Paper

Loyle, Cyanne; Helga Malmin Binningsbø & Scott Gates (2017) Amnesty as a Weapon of War: Government strength and justice processes during armed conflict, presented at 58th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Baltimore, 22–25 February.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Cyanne Loyle (2014) Justice during armed conflict from 1949 through 2011: A new dataset, presented at International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, 26–29 March 2014.
Strand, Håvard; Håvard Hegre; Scott Gates & Marianne Dahl (2012) Why Waves? Global Patterns of Democratization, 1816-2008, presented at 3rd International Conference on Democracy as Idea and Practice, Oslo, 12–13 January 2012.
Hegre, Håvard; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Espen Geelmuyden Rød (2012) The Determinants of Democracy: A Sensitivity Analysis, presented at merican Political Science Association Annual Convention, New Orleans, January 9.
Hegre, Håvard; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv 2012 Governance and Conflict Relapse, presented at International Studies Association Annual Convention, San Diego 1-4 April 2012, , .
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Cyanne Loyle (2011) Offers of Justice and Peace: Bargaining and Justice Processes during Conflict, presented at The Potential Role of Transitional Justice in Ongoing Conflicts, Minerva Center for Human Rights, Hebrew University, Israel, 14 November.
Hegre, Håvard; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; Håvard Strand; Scott Gates & Ranveig D. Flaten (2011) The Conflict Trap, presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting., Seattle, WA, October 11, 2011.
Hegre, Håvard;Hultman, Lisa ; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv 2010 Evaluating the Conflict Reducing Effects of UN Peace-Keeping Operations, presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, , 1–5 September.

PRIO Paper

Marsh, Nicholas & Gugu Dube (2014) Preventing Diversion: The Importance of Stockpile Management, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Corney, Neil & Nicholas Marsh (2013) Aiming for Control: The need to include ammunition in the Arms Trade Treaty, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - External Series

Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv; & Håvard Hegre (2015) Protracted Conflict and Development in the Arab Region, E/ESCWA/ECRI/2015/2 UNESCWA Trends and Impacts, 4. New York: United Nations.
Karim, Atina; & Nicholas Marsh (2015) State positions and practices concerning reporting and the Arms Trade Treaty, ATT Monitor, 1. New York: ATT Monitor.
Strand, Håvard; Håvard Hegre; Scott Gates; & Marianne Dahl (2012) Why Waves? Global Patterns of Democratization, Working paper. .
Hegre, Håvard; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv (2011) The Governance-Conflict Trap in the ESCWA Region, Background paper for UN study The Governance Deficit and Conflict Relapse in the ESCWA Region, : .
Chaitani, Youssef ; Håvard Hegre; Vito Intini; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; & Maria Ortiz Perez (2011) The Governance Deficit and Conflict Relapse in the ESCWA Region: An Overview, UN Doc E/ESCWA/ECRI/2011/1, 25 August. Beirut: UN ESCWA.
Gates, Scott; Håvard Hegre; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; & Håvard Strand (2010) Consequences of Civil War, Background paper for World Development Report 2011. .
Hegre, Håvard (2008) The Nature and Causes of Violent Conflicts in Africa, Background paper for African Development Report 2008, : .
Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Lene Siljeholm Christiansen; & Håvard Hegre (2007) Democratic Jihad? Military Intervention and Democracy, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 4242. .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Kjell Erling Kjellman (2004) Beyond Blueprints: Civil Society and Peacebuilding, Concept Paper commissioned by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). .

Blog Posts

Taiwan Is Feeling the Pressure from Russian and Chinese Autocracy

Posted by Pavel Baev on Monday, 20 March 2023

Taiwan is where Russia’s war in Ukraine and China’s economic underperformance overlap and produce a dangerous resonance. The war may be far away from Taipei, but it brings material problems, like delays in deliveries of U.S. armaments, and disturbing changes in the regional security environment. The end of China’s fast-paced economic growth ... Read more »

Governance and Survival after the Earthquake: The Political Complexities of Humanitarian Assistance

Posted by Pinar Tank & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Friday, 17 February 2023

The earthquake in Turkey and Syria on 6 February is tragic beyond what we are able to fathom. The World Health Organization’s Europe branch has labelled the 7.8 magnitude earthquake and a secondary 7.6 magnitude aftershock as the region’s “worst natural disaster” in 100 years. By 17 February, there have ... Read more »

What Can Somalia’s Federal Member States Learn from Somaliland as They Transition to Multiparty Elections?

Posted by Hassan Aden, Asha Adam, Ahmed Musa & Cindy Horst on Wednesday, 28 December 2022

Democratisation in the territories of the former ‘Somali Republic’ is influenced by the experience with the 1960s elections. After independence, the Somali republic adopted a parliamentary democracy. However, this democracy was short lived as elections became fraught with malpractices such as rigging, fraud, intimidation, and manipulation. … many Somalis welcomed ... Read more »

Civil Society Faces an Uphill Struggle to Defend Democracy

Posted by Marianne Dahl, Sirianne Dahlum, Hanne Fjelde & Ida Rudolfsen on Thursday, 8 December 2022

The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded this year’s Nobel Peace Prize jointly to Belarusian human rights advocate Ales Bialiatski, the Ukrainian human rights organization Center for Civil Liberties, and the Russian human rights organization Memorial for their promotion of “the right to criticize power and protect the fundamental rights of citizens.” This year’s prize constitutes ... Read more »

Power Cycle in International Politics: Africa’s Role in this Game

Posted by Vamo Soko & Bintu Zahara Sakor on Tuesday, 15 November 2022

Amitav Acharya characterized the current world order as “a world of multiple modernities, where Western liberal modernity (and its preferred pathways to economic development and governance) is only a part of what is on offer”. A world, he adds, of interconnectedness and interdependence, and “not a singular global order, liberal ... Read more »

Why has the Puntland state of Somalia been unable to conduct a ‘one person one vote’ election for over 24 years?

Posted by Ahmed Musa, Hassan Aden, Asha Adam & Cindy Horst on Wednesday, 9 November 2022

Somalia has not held multiparty elections since late 1969 when the military seized power from a democratically elected government in a bloodless coup.[1]  The military remained in control until 1991, followed by thirty years of civil war and political instability. After the collapse of the central government, major clans, notably ... Read more »

Are Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping Two of a Kind?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Monday, 29 August 2022

Democracy and separation of powers are in decline. In many countries, individuals have taken all the power into their own hands. This is true not least of Russia and China. Vladimir Putin has used his power to invade Ukraine. Recently, Xi Jinping practised encircling Taiwan. Could Xi be as willing ... Read more »

Війна і прагнення мати сильного лідера

Posted by Mark Van Vugt, Honorata Mazepus, Lasse Laustsen, Florian van Leeuwen & Henrikas Bartusevicius on Thursday, 25 August 2022

Досліджуємо, якого лідера воліють українці КЛЮЧОВІ МОМЕНТИ Під час воєн та інших криз люди зазвичай хочуть бачити на чолі суспільства сильного, домінуючого лідера. Опитування серед українців підтверджує, що люди надають перевагу сильному лідеру, особливо ті з них, хто відчуває гнів та агресивність. Нинішній президент Володимир Зеленський не вважається надто домінуючим, ... Read more »

The Myanmar Military’s Roadmap to Survival

Posted by Amara Thiha on Tuesday, 23 August 2022

As massive resistance against military rule in Myanmar continues, the besieged military administration lays out three priorities in its strategy to survive. As expected, Myanmar’s State Administration Council (SAC), also known as the military junta, last week extended the country’s state of emergency for another six months. Along with the ... Read more »

Should Norway Join the EU? Research on Democracy and Peace Suggests So.

Posted by Espen Geelmuyden Rød on Thursday, 14 July 2022

The debate about Norwegian EU membership has gained new life in the wake of Putin’s invasion of Ukraine. Norway has applied for EU-membership on multiple occasions. Charles de Gaulle blocked two applications in the 60s and the Norwegian population voted NO in referendums in 1972 and 1994 despite a clear ... Read more »

The UN Security Council Takes Action

Posted by Niels Nagelhus Schia on Monday, 4 July 2022

The Security Council has played an important function during the war in Ukraine. There is a general perception that the war in Ukraine has caused an existential crisis for the UN and paralyzed the UN Security Council. This perception is incorrect. On the contrary, the Security Council has shown itself ... Read more »

War and the Preference for a Strong Leader: Investigating What Kind of Leader Ukrainians Want

Posted by Mark Van Vugt, Honorata Mazepus, Lasse Laustsen, Florian van Leeuwen & Henrikas Bartusevicius on Tuesday, 31 May 2022

KEY POINTS During wars and other crises, people tend to want to be led by a strong, dominant leader. A survey among Ukrainians finds support for the strong leader preference, especially among those who feel more anger and aggression. Current president Volodymyr Zelenskyy is not seen as particularly dominant, though ... Read more »

A Popular Uprising Can Oust Putin

Posted by Espen Geelmuyden Rød, Marianne Dahl, Haakon Gjerløw & Hanne Fjelde on Monday, 4 April 2022

Putin’s place at the long table in the Kremlin is more insecure than ever, and even though he will cling to power, it is not inevitable that he will succeed. Fears that the so-called colour revolutions will spread to Russia have dogged Putin’s time in power. Colour revolutions in two ... Read more »

Putin May Fall

Posted by Tore Wig & Carl Henrik Knutsen on Thursday, 31 March 2022

We can be pretty sure that the likelihood of both a coup and a revolution in Russia is significantly higher today than it was a couple of months ago. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine looks like becoming a historic event with far-reaching consequences. Alongside the loss of human life and devastation ... Read more »

The Taliban, International Law and the Rest of the World

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken & Geir Ulfstein on Monday, 21 March 2022

The population of Afghanistan is facing a humanitarian catastrophe. Twenty-three million Afghans, more than half of the population, are starving. The UN warns of a risk that a million Afghan children will die. In this situation, there is no way of avoiding cooperation with those in control of the country, namely ... Read more »

Why Putin is Losing – The Weakness of Personalist Dictatorship

Posted by Jens Koning on Wednesday, 9 March 2022

When personalistic dictators go to war, they are more likely to miscalculate and lose than leaders of other types of regimes. Such failures can have dramatic consequences for the stability of their regime at home, as well as for the rest of the world. Russia’s grotesque invasion of Ukraine is ... Read more »

Ukraine as an Instance of State Repression

Posted by Christian Davenport on Saturday, 5 March 2022

The crisis in Ukraine reveals some distinct opinions about how the world is viewed. Most accurately, people see Russia as distinct from Ukraine, in which case what is taking place would be best evaluated as interstate war. Putin and his supporters, however, seem to see things in a different way. ... Read more »

We Shouldn’t Be Surprised by Putin’s Invasion

Posted by Tore Wig on Sunday, 27 February 2022

The wheel of history is now in motion. Russia’s gruesome attack on Ukraine disrupts one of the most significant trends in the history of nation states, namely the astounding absence of large-scale wars of invasion and occupation in Europe since the end of World War II. For many years, peace ... Read more »

How Did Europe Get into This Predicament? We Must Look in Our Own Backyard

Posted by Sverre Lodgaard on Thursday, 24 February 2022

It’s easy to condemn the opposing party in a polarized situation. But it’s more difficult to exercise self-criticism. It’s easy to condemn the opposing party in a polarized situation. Particularly when there are good reasons for such condemnation, as in the current situation. It’s easy to state that Russia’s lust ... Read more »

Democracy Works, Even in Weak States

Posted by Haakon Gjerløw, Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig on Tuesday, 22 February 2022

Political scientists have long assumed that a strong state is a prerequisite for a well-functioning democracy. Recent research suggests that this assumption is wrong. “Building a modern democratic state in Afghanistan where the government’s writ runs uniformly throughout the country implies a timeframe of many years, indeed decades,” wrote the ... Read more »

Good Reads: Resource Sovereignty

Posted by Kendra Dupuy on Friday, 26 November 2021

Green Curses research project member Dr. John Andrew McNeish, Professor at the Faculty of Landscape and Society at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, has just published two books on contestations over natural resources. The first book, a monograph authored by McNeish and entitled Sovereign Forces: Everyday Challenges to Environmental ... Read more »

Misconception of Power and the Case of Guinea’s President Alpha Condé

Posted by Vamo Soko, Bintu Zahara Sakor & Mohammed Sacko on Thursday, 14 October 2021

On September 5th, President Alpha Condé was captured by the Guinean elite special force commander Col. Mamady Doumbouyah and his team. Col. Doumbouyah, the head of CNRD (National Committee of Reconciliation and Development) immediately dissolved the government, annulled the constitution, urged the former officials to report on the following day for ... Read more »

Military Coups d'État and Guinea’s Rocky Road to Political Stability

Posted by Bintu Zahara Sakor, Mohammed Sacko & Vamo Soko on Thursday, 7 October 2021

While the fate of Guinea’s former President Alpha Condé remains unclear following a military coup on September 5, the ongoing political turmoil is most likely a beginning of a repetitive cycle of a semi-democratic military governance observed across West Africa. Security Defection: Domestic vs. International Community Reactions Guinea is, yet ... Read more »

Corona Apps – Going Global

Posted by Mareile Kaufmann, Åshild Kolås & Arijit Sen on Thursday, 30 September 2021

On 8 April 2020, less than a month after the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was a pandemic, Mareile Kaufmann posted a PRIO blog entitled “Corona Apps – Where Are We Headed?” on the use of digital tools in the “war against corona”, asking what the ... Read more »

Karaoke politics: the Bulgarian election results in limbo

Posted by Mira Ivanova on Friday, 9 April 2021

On 4 April, while some countries celebrated Easter and spring break, Bulgarians all around the world cast their votes in one of the most exciting parliamentary elections in decades. In Majorstuen, Oslo, over 500 people waited for up to 3 hours at the Bulgarian embassy to exercise their right to ... Read more »

In 2016, I identified four future developments that would justify the Trump-Hitler comparison. Here are the results.

Posted by Sebastian Schutte on Friday, 12 February 2021

In 2016, comparing president-elect Donald Trump to all-time villain Adolf Hitler seemed overdrawn. It ultimately proved to be exaggerated in 2021, with the transition of power to Joe Biden completed. However, during his presidency, Trump has taken actions similar to the ones the Nazis used to consolidate their power. This ... Read more »

National Risk Assessments: a political vaccine against the next disaster?

Posted by Kristoffer Lidén on Friday, 29 January 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the political potential of National Risk Assessments (NRAs). The consistent focus of European NRAs on the risk of pandemics while public attention was glued to terrorism demonstrates their relevance to the question of how to prevent and prepare for future disasters – be they natural or ... Read more »

The United States Must Be Viewed as a Flawed Democracy at Significant Risk of Transitioning into Dictatorship

Posted by Tore Wig on Tuesday, 12 January 2021

A study of flawed democracies and semi-dictatorships describes a common pattern of events as follows: After having lost an election, the sitting president claims that the election was invalid, whereupon he attempts a coup d’état and his supporters storm the parliament. A few years ago, this sequence of events would ... Read more »

The Empire Strikes Back

Posted by Lars-Erik Cederman on Friday, 8 January 2021

In recent years, nationalist leaders have staked claims on lost territories in order to restore the glory of former empires. Lars-​Erik Cederman believes that this rise in revanchist nationalism poses a threat to geopolitical stability. populist nationalists have increasingly expressed a strong sense of longing for their states’ imperial past ... Read more »

Bosnia and Herzegovina – a Failed State 25 Years After the Peace Accords

Posted by Inger Skjelsbæk on Wednesday, 30 December 2020

The people of Bosnia and Herzegovina are governed by three presidents, 14 prime ministers, 180 ministers, and 700 members of parliament (who sit in 14 different parliaments). A ping on my phone last fall told me that she was now a widow. The message was from my Bosnian friend in ... Read more »

Protests, Elections, and Ethnic Tensions in West Africa: What are the Driving Forces?

Posted by Bintu Zahara Sakor & Vamo Soko on Tuesday, 24 November 2020

As ongoing post-electoral violence across West-Africa continues, especially in countries such as Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire, the region is forced to urgently address the implications of long-term economic decline and poor governance systems. What are the key driving forces for the current troubling political atmosphere? Post-election Violence: Guinea  and Côte ... Read more »

COVID-19: A call for people-centered national security strategy in Africa

Posted by Luka Biong Deng Kuol on Wednesday, 18 November 2020

Humanity has been extraordinarily challenged by the coronavirus with serious and unprecedented impacts on all aspects of human life and the ways states have been functioning and managing public affairs. COVID-19 may either consolidate global solidarity or it may take humanity on a path toward the demise of globalization and ... Read more »

Tensions in Nordic Cooperation

Posted by Therese Sefton on Wednesday, 11 November 2020

The Covid-19 crisis has (re)introduced challenges within and between the Nordic countries, endangering the image of a unitary, happy and cooperative region.   The pandemic has highlighted serious challenges with the provision of welfare services –perhaps the welfare state as a whole in the Nordic region, above all in Sweden. ... Read more »

Collection of PRIO Research on Racism, Inequality and Discrimination

Posted by PRIO on Monday, 12 October 2020

Introduction For over six decades, our mission here at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) has been to produce research for a more peaceful world. We analyze the conditions, causes, and dynamics of the political and social processes that create conflict or peace, and communicate this knowledge to policymakers, stakeholders, ... Read more »

COVID-19 puts India’s e-governance infrastructure and innovation to the test

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Anjoo Sharan Upadhyaya on Monday, 28 September 2020

India’s e-governance and digitalization drive harnesses ‘smart’ technology in an effort to generate new economic opportunities, boost economic growth, govern more efficiently with less corruption, and distribute relief and benefits to the poor and disadvantaged more effectively. In April 2015, India’s National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Prime Minister ... Read more »

Can Mali’s democracy wait?

Posted by Ole Sevrin Nydal on Friday, 4 September 2020

Mali cannot afford another rushed and destabilizing election process. Sustaining and strengthening international cooperation should be the first priority, even if this implies a temporary military regime. No surprise, but very inconvenient Mali’s recent coup – the third in three decades – came as no surprise. An escalating civil war, ... Read more »

Institutionalizing the Dreadful Victory in Post-War Sri Lanka

Posted by Madhav Joshi on Thursday, 3 September 2020

On August 5, 2020, over 11 million voters cast their votes to elect the 225 members in the Sri Lankan Lower House. With a two-thirds majority of the Sri Lankan People’s Democratic Alliance in this election, the Rajapaksa brothers, who were front and center in Sri Lankan politics from 2005 ... Read more »

Oppression and Regime Survival: Will Trump’s reactions to the Black Lives Matter movement bring about his exit?

Posted by Tora Sagård, Vilde Bergstad Larsen & Marianne Dahl on Sunday, 5 July 2020

Since George Floyd’s brutal killing by the police in May, demonstrations have spread to more than 2,000 major cities and villages in the United States. Black Lives Matter (“BLM”) is probably the most widespread movement in the country’s history. In addition, we have seen huge global support, with demonstrations in ... Read more »

Is 2020 = 1968?

Posted by Adrian Arellano, Christian Davenport & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård on Monday, 15 June 2020

People around the world are grappling to understand events in the United States at the moment regarding the current wave of protest and protest policing.  A few events readily come to mind in this comparison but the one that probably carries the greatest resonance would be the uprisings/disturbances/riots that followed ... Read more »

Toward a Social-Democratic Peace?

Posted by Nils Petter Gleditsch on Wednesday, 10 June 2020

The post–World War II period has shown a clear, albeit erratic, decline of organized violence. Violence in this period peaked during the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and most recently the Syrian Civil War, but the peaks are declining over time and the long-term trend in ... Read more »

Context matters – Why Africa should tailor its own measures to fight COVID-19

Posted by Nina Wilén on Monday, 20 April 2020

This piece is part of our blog series Beyond the COVID Curve. COVID-19 has quickly changed everything from our daily routines, to the policies of governments, to the fortunes of the global economy. How will it continue to shape society and the conditions for peace and conflict globally in the near ... Read more »

Humanitarian Wearables and the Future of Aid in the Global Data Economy

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Thursday, 16 April 2020

Kristin Bergtora Sandvik examines the politics of humanitarian wearables to understand more about how digitization is reshaping the nature and relations of aid. Utopian visions for change The rise of a global data economy has engendered intense engagements with new patterns of digital extraction and surveillance, giving rise to terms such as ‘data ... Read more »

Erna Solberg as dictator?

Posted by Sirianne Dahlum, Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig on Thursday, 26 March 2020

Seen in hindsight: was Norwegian democracy actually in peril for a few days in mid-March 2020? This piece is part of our blog series Beyond the COVID Curve. COVID-19 has quickly changed everything from our daily routines, to the policies of governments, to the fortunes of the global economy. How ... Read more »

A Youth Perspective on Youth Participation and Inclusion in the Middle East

Posted by Rode Margrete Hegstad on Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Can we improve democracy and promote peace by becoming better at including youth and create spaces for youth participation in political processes? Last week I had the great honor of representing Norwegian youth on a panel discussion about this very topic during a seminar hosted by PRIO during the royal state visit ... Read more »

Improved Data to Assist in the Prevention and Management of Conflicts

Posted by Julia Kercher, Alexandra Wilde, Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Håvard Strand on Friday, 6 March 2020

Today, the Praia City Group on Governance Statistics is launching its Handbook on Governance Statistics. The Praia Handbook on Governance Statistics provides improved data that can assist in the prevention and management of conflicts. What is the Handbook about? the … handbook is in itself nothing less than a historical ... Read more »

What China’s Approach to the Wuhan Virus Tells Us about Politics in Dictatorships

Posted by Carl Henrik Knutsen on Friday, 7 February 2020

It is easy to become fascinated by the images from Wuhan. Stunning aerial photographs show dozens of Chinese diggers deployed on a plot of land to build a brand new hospital. The hospital will be completed in just a few days! Perhaps it’s not so bad after all to have ... Read more »

We checked 100 years of protests in 150 countries. Here’s what we learned about the working class and democracy.

Posted by Sirianne Dahlum, Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig on Tuesday, 29 October 2019

The success of mass protests depends on who is doing the protesting. Many observers fear that democracy is currently at risk — including in the United States and some European countries. Some commentators blame less-educated members of the working classes for the democratic backlash. According to the stereotype, these voters tend ... Read more »

What "Chernobyl" Teaches Us About the Superiority of Democracy

Posted by Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Marianne Dahl on Friday, 18 October 2019

Authoritarian structures made Chernobyl an unavoidable accident. The HBO series “Chernobyl” has garnered rave reviews all over the world. Norwegian newspapers have been almost unanimous in their praise of the series. And with good reason. This is television drama at its very best. One largely overlooked aspect of the series ... Read more »

Norway – The Colonial Power

Posted by Inga Marie Nymo Riseth on Tuesday, 29 May 2018

Imagine this. Close to a small lake, there is a little building. It has stood there for 120 years – ever since your ancestors, who lived off fishing and foraging, built it. Your grandmother brings you to this place to pass your people’s traditions on to you. You go there ... Read more »

Hungary (Re)Elects in April

Posted by Júlia Palik on Thursday, 5 April 2018

Looking at the most recent polls, Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orbán can be calm about the upcoming elections on the 8th of April. The only real question is whether his Fidesz party will win with a simple or a constitutional majority. But what is the secret of this football enthusiast? ... Read more »

Zimbabwe: from Coup to Democratization?

Posted by Marianne Dahl & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch on Friday, 17 November 2017

In the early hours of the morning on 15 November, the Zimbabwean military placed President Mugabe under house arrest. The coup against one of the longest serving rulers in Africa appears to have been a reaction to Mugabe’s ouster of his vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa, to pave the way for his ... Read more »

What to Expect from India at COP23?

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Uttam Sinha on Wednesday, 1 November 2017

Climate change is not a one-way street of cause and effect. International negotiations on climate change and the reduction of emissions are equally complex. A consistent Indian demand has been  green technology transfer from “high-emitting” developed countries. An equally longstanding principle is that of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, ... Read more »

Totalitarianism Closing in on China

Posted by Stein Ringen on Monday, 16 October 2017

The only drama in the “two sessions” jamboree in Beijing this spring is that there was no drama at all. Each year the Chinese political élite, 5000 men and a few women strong, congregate in the capital for a week of meetings of the legislature, the National People’s Congress, and ... Read more »

Sleepless in the Age of Trump

Posted by Tore Wig on Monday, 6 February 2017

What we know about how great power wars start should make us terrified of President Trump. I don’t sleep at night, because of Donald Trump. This is unusual. I wasn’t kept awake at night by George W. Bush or Bill Clinton. Nor do I lose sleep over hot-blooded authoritarians such ... Read more »

Digital India: Less Cash, but not Cashless

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Elida Kristine Undrum Jacobsen on Wednesday, 30 November 2016

The past month has seen historic events in India. On Tuesday 8 November 2016, the Modi government announced without prior warning that all 500 and 1000 Indian rupee notes would be rendered valueless more or less overnight. In effect, this meant immediate withdrawal of the largest bank notes in circulation, ... Read more »

Democratic Intervention?

Posted by Nils Petter Gleditsch on Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Donald Trump has made statements sceptical of military interventions in the Middle East. This is perhaps a rare piece of good news. Military intervention as a means of building democracy has once again become a hot topic. The Norwegian government has been criticized due to the consequences of the intervention ... Read more »

India’s Membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime

Posted by Rajiv Nayan & Åshild Kolås on Thursday, 18 August 2016

India became the 35th member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) on 27 June 2016. The MTCR is an informal and voluntary association of suppliers of ballistic and cruise missiles capable of delivering Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and other unmanned aerial vehicles. It was established in 1987 with ... Read more »

Blair’s Global Vision – and Lacking Knowledge Base

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 12 July 2016

Tony Blair took the decision to take part in the military intervention in Iraq in 2003 more or less on his own, and based it on very scant knowledge. Are there reasons to fear the same happening again? The British Chilcot Commission has released a crushing verdict over former PM ... Read more »

The Right to Decide: Exit and Basque Self-Determination

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Five years ago, the Basque militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom) announced a unilateral and permanent cessation of operations. Since then, the disappearance of political violence has given rise to a new debate on Basque nationhood: more inclusive, more open, more civic, and at the same time stronger in ... Read more »

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions: Are Norwegians more secure ... Read more »

The ‘Sovereign’ according to Ola Tunander

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Monday, 30 May 2016

On Friday 27 May 2016, PRIO celebrated Ola Tunander’s 30-year academic career with a seminar on ‘Sovereignty, Subs and PSYOPS’, and a reception. The celebration was, of course, focused on Ola and his work, spanning topics from the geopolitics and organic state theory of Rudolf Kjellén to the 27 October ... Read more »

Is it Strange that Dictators Hold Elections?

Posted by Håvard Mokleiv Nygård on Monday, 14 December 2015

Why do dictators hold elections that merely play to the gallery? On 11 October, Alexander Lukashenko was re-elected as president of Belarus with an impressive 84 per cent share of the vote. The election was anything but free and fair. According to the OSCE, Belarusian law makes it impossible for ... Read more »

Unarmed Protests Force Leaders from Power Twice as Often as Violent Uprisings

Posted by Kristian Skrede Gleditsch on Thursday, 29 October 2015

Research lends support to the Nobel Committee’s rationale for its award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2015; the revolution in Tunisia shows how non-violent protest can assist in democratization. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet came as a surprise to most observers. ... Read more »

Can an Economic Boom Ensure Peaceful Elections in Côte d’Ivoire?

Posted by Kathleen Klaus & Matthew I. Mitchell on Thursday, 22 October 2015

On Oct. 25, Ivorians head to the polls for their first presidential election since the disputed 2010 election that left more than 3,000 dead and more than 500,000 displaced. Despite the previous electoral violence and a decade of civil war and political turmoil from 2000-2010, most discussion before this election ... Read more »

Pakistan’s Crippling Energy Crisis and Increasing Remittances

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Zain Ul Abdin on Thursday, 1 October 2015

Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems. This summer CNBC run a report titled Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems after more than a thousand people died during heatwaves during the first days of Ramadan. Insufficient preparedness for the heatwave is largely seen as the cause of deaths, yet the context ... Read more »

Institutional Characteristics and Regime Survival: Why Are Semi-Democracies Less Durable than Autocracies and Democracies?

Posted by Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Carl Henrik Knutsen on Monday, 10 August 2015

In Zaïre (currently DR Congo) in 1991, the country’s personalist ruler Mobutu Sese Seko faced popular unrest, army mutinies, and shrinking resources for patronage. Mobutu was seemingly starting to lose his grip on power, which he had held since the mid-1960s. In response, Mobutu ended the decades-long ban on political ... Read more »

How Can States and Non-State Actors Respond to Authoritarian Resurgence?

Posted by Erica Chenoweth on Monday, 20 July 2015

Two weeks ago, the Monkey Cage ran a piece by Matthew Baum and Phil Potter suggesting that the policy of “democracy-promotion” has gone out of style.[1] I think they’re right that in many circles democracy-promotion is politically passé and that, more broadly, democracy advocates are really having a tough couple ... Read more »

Are Norwegian Oil Companies making Civil Wars More Likely?

Posted by Ragnhild Belbo on Tuesday, 20 January 2015

East Africa has become the latest hotspot for oil-and-gas discoveries, but the reserves are located in countries characterized by weak state institutions and social unrest. A number of African countries – several of them with significant Norwegian assistance – are on the threshold of becoming major producers of oil and ... Read more »

Measurement of Regime Type Effects on Police Focus

Posted by Erica Chenoweth on Wednesday, 30 July 2014

Is there any measurable way to tell whether police become more or less focused on crime prevention and public safety in nations that are not fully democratic? Interesting question. I guess answering it would have to start with a good theory as to why police would change their priorities and ... Read more »

Democracy, Democratization, and Political Violence

Posted by Håvard Hegre on Friday, 16 May 2014

The process of democratization is often violent in the short run, and democratic governments are more constrained in their use of force against insurgents than non-democratic authorities. But are democracies really more prone to political violence than other political systems? This is the theme of a short article published at ... Read more »

Electing India's Future

Posted by Jason Miklian & Kristian Hoelscher on Monday, 12 May 2014

In April, 800 hundred million people began casting their ballots all across India in the largest election the world has ever seen. When we think of voting in India, we often picture a poor elderly villager showing a big ink-stained thumb and boasting a wide smile as proof of democracy ... Read more »

Nepal Moves Towards Democracy

Posted by Helge Holtermann & Scott Gates on Saturday, 8 February 2014

Democracy is to a large extent about parties being willing to accept electoral defeat. In Nepal the Maoist Party, previously engaged in guerrilla warfare, has done precisely this. A wave of election boycotts is sweeping across Asia. In Thailand’s election on 2 February the “Democrats” succeeded in preventing voting in ... Read more »

Why does Democratization Occur in Waves?

Posted by Håvard Hegre on Sunday, 12 January 2014

The ‘Arab Spring’ demonstrated that political transitions tend to occur together in space and time. Samuel Huntington coined the term ‘Waves of democratization’ in his book The Third Wave. The figure above shows that changes to the proportion of the world’s countries that are democracies occurs in spurts. Confirming Huntington’s three waves ... Read more »