Environment (2012-2015)

Coordinator: Siri Aas Rustad

​​The Environment research group defines the environment in the broad sense of physical factors that condition human affairs as well as sociopolitical configurations of settlement patterns. 

​Relevant research themes of the Environment research group include:

  • Security implications of climate variability
  • Conflict and cooperation over resource accessibility and distribution
  • Spatial patterns and drivers of armed conflict.

The Environment research group covers both qualitative and quantitative research. It applies disaggregated data and approaches to understand cross-scale dynamics of environment-society interactions, for example, drought among major food producers triggering local food insecurity in food-importing countries, as well as to understand the relevance of local factors and conditions.


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Buhaug, Halvard (2015) Climate–conflict research: some reflections on the way forward, WIREs Climate Change 6(3): 269–275.
Tollefsen, Andreas Forø & Halvard Buhaug (2015) Insurgency and Inaccessibility, International Studies Review 17(1): 6–25.
Gürel, Ayla & Laura Le Cornu (2014) Can Gas Catalyse Peace in the Eastern Mediterranean?, The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs 49(2): 11–33.
Wischnath, Gerdis & Halvard Buhaug (2014) Rice or riots: On food production and conflict severity across India, Political Geography 43: 6–15.
Buhaug, Halvard; Jonas Nordkvelle; Thomas Bernauer; Tobias Böhmelt; Michael Brzoska; Joshua W. Busby; Antonio Ciccone; Hanne Fjelde; Erik Gartzke; Nils Petter Gleditsch; Jack A. Goldstone; Håvard Hegre; Helge Holtermann; Vally Koubi; Jasmin S. A. Link; Peter Michael Link; Päivi Lujala; John O'Loughlin; Clionadh Raleigh; Jürgen Scheffran; Janpeter Schilling; Todd G. Smith; Ole Magnus Theisen; Richard S. J. Tol; Henrik Urdal & Nina von Uexkull (2014) One effect to rule them all? A comment on climate and conflict, Climatic Change 127(3): 391–397.
Böhmelt, Tobias; Thomas Bernauer; Halvard Buhaug; Nils Petter Gleditsch; Theresa Tribaldos & Gerdis Wischnath (2014) Demand, Supply, and Restraint: Determinants of Domestic Water Conflict and Cooperation, Global Environmental Change 29: 337–348.
Wischnath, Gerdis & Halvard Buhaug (2014) On Climate Variability and Civil War in Asia, Climatic Change 122(4): 709–721.
Buhaug, Halvard (2014) Concealing Agreements over Climate-Conflict Results, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(6).
Theisen, Ole Magnus; Nils Petter Gleditsch & Halvard Buhaug (2013) Is climate change a driver of armed conflict?, Climatic Change 117(3): 613–625.
Buhaug, Halvard & Henrik Urdal (2013) An urbanization bomb? Population growth and social disorder in cities, Global Environmental Change 23(1): 1–10.
Rustad, Siri Aas & Helga Malmin Binningsbø (2012) A Price Worth Fighting For? Natural Resources and Conflict Recurrence, Journal of Peace Research 49(4): 531–546.
Bernauer, Thomas; Tobias Böhmelt; Halvard Buhaug; Nils Petter Gleditsch; Theresa Tribaldos; Eivind Berg Weibust & Gerdis Wischnath (2012) Water-Related Intrastate Conflict and Cooperation (WARICC): A New Event Dataset, International Interactions 38(4): 529–545.
Benjaminsen, Tor Arve; Koffi Alinon; Halvard Buhaug & Jill Tove Buseth (2012) Does Climate Change Drive Land-Use Conflicts in the Sahel?, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 97–111.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Siri Aas Rustad (2012) Sharing the Wealth: A Pathway to Peace or a Trail to Nowhere?, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(5): 547–566.
Brochmann, Marit; Jan Ketil Rød & Nils Petter Gleditsch (2012) International Borders and Conflict Revisited, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(2): 170–194.
Bergholt, Drago & Päivi Lujala (2012) Climate-Related Natural Disasters, Economic Growth, and Armed Civil Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 147–162.
Slettebak, Rune (2012) Don’t Blame the Weather! Climate-Related Natural Disasters and Civil Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 163–176.
Theisen, Ole Magnus (2012) Climate Clashes? Weather Variability, Land Pressure, and Organized Violence in Kenya, 1989–2004, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 81–96.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2012) Whither the Weather? Climate Change and Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 3–9.
Theisen, Ole Magnus; Helge Holtermann & Halvard Buhaug (2012) Climate Wars? Assessing the Claim that Drought Breeds Conflict, International Security 36(3): 79–106.
Butler, Christopher K. & Scott Gates (2012) African Range Wars: Climate, Conflict, and Property Rights, Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 23–34.
Urdal, Henrik; Ole Magnus Theisen; Nils Petter Gleditsch & Halvard Buhaug (2010) Klimakriger? En vurdering av det faglige grunnlaget [Climate Wars? An Assessment of the Scientific Foundation], Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift 26(4): 297–320.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Kathryn Furlong; Håvard Hegre; Bethany Ann Lacina & Taylor Owen (2006) Conflicts over Shared Rivers: Resource Wars or Fuzzy Boundaries?, Political Geography 25(4): 361–382.

PhD Thesis

Slettebak, Rune (2012) Climate Change, Natural Disasters, and the Risk of Violent Conflict. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Book Chapter

Buhaug, Halvard & Hanne Seter (2014) Environmental Change and Armed Conflict, in Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars. New York: Routledge (197–210).
Buhaug, Halvard; Henrik Urdal & Gudrun Østby (2013) Sustainable Cities: Urbanization and Human Security, in Sygna, Linda; Karen O'Brien; & Johanna Wolf, eds, A Changing Environment for Human Security - Transformative approaches to research, policy and action. London: Routledge (56–66).
Lujala, Päivi & Siri Aas Rustad (2012) High-value Natural Resources: A Blessing or a Curse for Peace?, in Siri Aas Rustad, ed., High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan (3–18).
Ross, Michael W.; Päivi Lujala & Siri Aas Rustad (2012) Horizontal Inequality, Decentralizing the Distribution of Natural Resources Revenues, and Peace, in High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan (251–259).
Rustad, Siri Aas; Päivi Lujala & Philippe Le Billon (2012) Building or Spoiling Peace? Lessons from the Management of the High-Value Natural Resources, in High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan (571–621).
Buhaug, Halvard; & Theisen, Ole Magnus(2012) On Environmental Change and armed Conflict Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict. Challenges For Societal Stability. : J. Scheffran, M. Brozka, H.G. Brauch, P.M Link, and J. Schilling(43–56).
de Soysa, Indra & Michael Roll (2011) Natural Resource Curse and State Failure: A Comparative View of Sub-Saharan, in Sebastian Sperling, ed., Fuelling the World ­ Failing the Region? Oil Governance and Development in Africa¹s Gulf of Guinea. Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung .

Edited Volume

Lujala, Päivi; & Siri Aas Rustad, eds, (2012) High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Natural Resource Management.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Buhaug, Halvard (2010) Reply to Burke et al.: Bias and Climate War Research, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107(51): 186–187.

Popular Article

Miklian, Jason (2013) “Let’s Deal”: A Conversation with a Diamond Smuggler, Words without Borders, 6 September.
Miklian, Jason (2013) Rough Cut, Foreign Policy, 2 January.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2010) Klima og politisk uro [Climate and Political Unrest], Aftenposten, 21 July.
Benjaminsen, Tor Arve (2009) Samarbeid om knappe ressurser [Cooperation over scarce resources], Aftenposten, 10 December.

PRIO Report

Hoelscher, Kristian; Katherine Edelen; Jason Miklian; Silje Holen; Joyeeta Bhattacharjee; Line Barkved; Farzana Jahan; Hari Bansh Jha; & Åshild Kolås (2013) Water Scarcity in Bangladesh. Transboundary Rivers, Conflict and Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Wischnath, Gerdis (2011) Climate Change and Civil War? A Quantitative Approach on Climate Variability and Armed Conflict in Asia. MA thesis, Department of Geography, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Stene, Sofie Hove (2011) The Missing Link: Explaining the Absence of War over Water in the Middle East. MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Conference Paper

Rustad, Siri Aas; Gudrun Østby & Ragnhild Nordås (2014) Artisanal Mining, Conflict and Sexual Violence: Micro-Level Evidence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, presented at The 49th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, Toronto, 26–29 March .
Buhaug, Halvard & Gerdis Wischnath (2013) On climate-conflict dynamics across India, presented at 54th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, 3–6 April.
Wischnath, Gerdis & Halvard Buhaug (2012) Heat Waves and Rebel Raves? On Climate Variability and Civil War in Asia, presented at Annual convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego, CA, 1–4 April.
Urdal, Henrik; Kristian Hoelscher & Halvard Buhaug (2012) Does Urbanization Lead to More Peace? Rural-Urban Age Structure Differentials and Civil War, presented at The Annual convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego, CA, 1–4 April.

PRIO Policy Brief

Buhaug, Halvard & Ida Rudolfsen (2015) A Climate of Conflicts?, Conflict Trends, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Miklian, Jason (2013) Exposing and Limiting the Global Trade in Conflict Diamonds, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Buhaug, Halvard & Jonas Nordkvelle (2014) Climate and conflict: A Comment on Hsiang et al.'s Reply to Buhaug et al., PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Buhaug, Halvard; Håvard Hegre & Håvard Strand (2010) Sensitivity Analysis of Climate Variability and Civil War, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.