Law and Ethics

Coordinator: Kristoffer Lidén

​What is the relationship between norms and the realm of international affairs? Can it ever be morally defensible to engage in armed struggle? If so, what rules and parameters should guide the use of armed force? How are current rules grounded, and how can we critique and change them so that they contribute to peaceful relations and further the cause of justice? And, not least, how can we use ethics and law to build trustful, stable, and peaceful relations in a multicultural world? These and similar overarching questions form the foundations of the Law and Ethics research group at PRIO. 

​The work of the Law and Ethics research group is primarily focused on three overarching themes, each encompassing a number of related research areas:

1. The rules of war and peace in history and in practice

2. Emerging military technologies (including unmanned aerial vehicles and cyber technology)

3. Institutional and moral challenges in the current world order.

PRIO’s work on Law and Ethics encompasses the academic fields of law, moral philosophy, political theory, religious studies, theology, history, and sociology. Although quantitative approaches will oftentimes be utilized or relied upon, the researchers within this research group mainly employ qualitative, hermeneutic approaches, both historical and sociological. Law and Ethics includes both normative and descriptive projects.



Current Projects

Past Projects

Research Group News

Past Events


Recent publications

Hovd, Sigurd (2023) Tools of war and virtue – institutional structures as a source of ethical deskilling, Frontiers in Big Data. DOI: 10.3389/fdata.2022.1019293.
Hirblinger, Andreas; Julie Marie Hansen; Kristian Hoelscher; Åshild Kolås; Kristoffer Lidén & Bruno Oliveira Martins (2022) Digital Peacebuilding: A Framework for Critical–Reflexive Engagement, International Studies Perspectives. DOI: 10.1093/isp/ekac015.
Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Kristoffer Lidén & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2022) Border security and the digitalisation of sovereignty: insights from EU borderwork, European Security 31(3): 475–494.

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Hovd, Sigurd (2023) Tools of war and virtue – institutional structures as a source of ethical deskilling, Frontiers in Big Data. DOI: 10.3389/fdata.2022.1019293.
Hirblinger, Andreas; Julie Marie Hansen; Kristian Hoelscher; Åshild Kolås; Kristoffer Lidén & Bruno Oliveira Martins (2022) Digital Peacebuilding: A Framework for Critical–Reflexive Engagement, International Studies Perspectives. DOI: 10.1093/isp/ekac015.
Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Kristoffer Lidén & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2022) Border security and the digitalisation of sovereignty: insights from EU borderwork, European Security 31(3): 475–494.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2022) A better foundation for national security? The ethics of national risk assessments in the Nordic region, Cooperation and Conflict. DOI: 10.1177/00108367211068877.
Wilén, Nina (2022) The impact of security force assistance in Niger: meddling with borders, International Affairs. DOI: 10.1093/ia/iiac119.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2020) Wearables for something good: aid, dataveillance and the production of children’s digital bodies, Information, Communication & Society 23(14): 2014–2029.
Leese, Matthias; Kristoffer Lidén & Blagovesta Nikolova (2019) Putting critique to work: Ethics in EU security research, Security Dialogue 50(1): 59–76.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2018) A war on values? On the politics of countering the values of violent extremism, Security, Society and Technology (pilot journal issue) 1(1): 18–37.
Reichberg, Gregory M. (2018) Reframing the Catholic Understanding of Just War, Journal of Religious Ethics 46(3): 570–596.
Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2018) UNHCR and the pursuit of international protection: accountability through technology?, Third World Quarterly. DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2018.1432346.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Nathaniel A. Raymond (2017) Beyond the Protective Effect: Towards a Theory of Harm for Information Communication Technologies in Mass Atrocity Response, Genocide Studies and Prevention: an International Journal 11(1): 9–24.
Lidén, Kristoffer; Nona Mikhelidze; Elena B. Stavrevska & Birte Vogel (2016) EU support to civil society organizations in conflict-ridden countries: A governance perspective from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus and Georgia, International Peacekeeping 23(2): 274–301.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) African Drone Stories, BEHEMOTH a Journal on Civilisation 8(2): 73–96.
Lemaitre, Julieta & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2015) Shifting Frames, Vanishing Resources, and Dangerous Political Opportunities: Legal Mobilization among Displaced Women in Colombia, Law & Society Review 49(1): 5–38.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2014) Regulating War in the Shadow of Law: Toward a Re-Articulation of ROE, Journal of Military Ethics 13(2): 118–136.
Reichberg, Gregory M. (2013) The Moral Equality of Combatants - A Doctrine in Classical Just War Theory?, Journal of Military Ethics 12(2): 181–194.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Cyberkrig og internasjonal rett, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 252–262.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Hans-Inge Giske Langø (2013) Cyberspace og sikkerhet, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 221–228.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin; Cyanne Loyle ; Scott Gates & Jon Elster (2012) Armed Conflict and Post-Conflict Justice, 1946–2006: A Dataset, Journal of Peace Research 49(5): 731–740.
Begby, Endre; Gregory M. Reichberg & Henrik Syse (2012) The Ethics of War. Part II: Contemporary Authors and Issues, Philosophy Compass 7(5): 328–347.
Hayashi, Nobuo (2010) Requirements of Military Necessity in International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law, Boston University International Law Journal 28(1): 39–140.
Brekke, Torkel (2005) The ethics of war and the concept of war in India and Europe, Numen 52(1): 59–86.
Brekke, Torkel (2004) Wielding the Rod of Punishment - War and Violence in the Political Science of Kautilya, Journal of Military Ethics 3(1): 40–52.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Fixdal, Mona (1997) Anti-personnel Landmines: A Just Means of War? , Security Dialogue 28(3): 271–285.

PhD Thesis

Hayashi, Nobuo (2017) Military Necessity. PhD thesis, Leiden University, Leiden.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2014) Between Intervention and Sovereignty: Ethics of Liberal Peacebuilding and the Philosophy of Global Governance. PhD thesis, Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, University of Oslo, Oslo.


Book Chapter

Olsson, Louise (2022) Peacekeeping operations and women’s security, in Han Dorussen, ed., Handbook on Peacekeeping and International Relations. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd (242–255).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2021) The Ethics of Liberal Peacebuilding, in Richmond, Oliver P.; & Gëzim Visoka, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Peacebuilding, Statebuilding, and Peace Formation. Oxford: Oxford University Press (42–58).
Casiraghi, Simone; James Peter Burgess & Kristoffer Lidén (2021) Social acceptance and border control technologies, in Border Control and New Technologies: Addressing Integrated Impact Assessment. Brussels: ASP Academic and Scientific Publishers (99–115).
Casiraghi, Simone; James Peter Burgess & Kristoffer Lidén (2021) Ethics and border control technologies, in Burgess, James Peter; & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza, eds, Border Control and New Technologies: Addressing Integrated Impact Assessment. Brussels: ASP Academic and Scientific Publishers (81–97).
Reichberg, Gregory M. & Henrik Syse (2021) Applying AI on the Battlefield: The Ethical Debates, in von Braun, Joachim; Margaret S. Archer; Gregory M. Reichberg; & Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, eds, Robotics, AI, and Humanity: Science, Ethics, and Policy. Cham: Springer (147–159).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2020) Peace-building, in Antonio De Lauri, ed., Humanitarianism: Keywords. Leiden, Boston: Brill (154–156).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2020) Doctrine, in Antonio De Lauri, ed., Humanitarianism: Keywords. Leiden, Boston: Brill (49–51).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2020) Ethics, in Antonio De Lauri, ed., Humanitarianism: Keywords. Leiden, Boston: Brill (61–63).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2020) Universality, in Antonio De Lauri, ed., Humanitarianism: Keywords. Leiden, Boston: Brill (220–222).
Lidén, Kristoffer & Henrik Syse (2019) The Politics of Peace and Law: Realism, Internationalism and the Cosmopolitan Challenge (2nd ed), in Cecilia Bailliet, ed., Research Handbook on International Law and Peace. Northampton: Edward Elgar (30–50).
Svantesson, Dan J.B. & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza (2017) Landscape with the Rise of Data Privacy Protection, in Svantesson, Dan J.B.; & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza, eds, Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy. Cambridge: Intersentia (545–567).
Svantesson, Dan J.B. & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza (2017) Preface: Yet Another Book about Snowden and Safe Harbor?, in Svantesson, Dan J.B.; & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza, eds, Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy. Cambridge: Intersentia (9-21).
Kloza, Dariusz (Darek) (2017) A Behavioural Alternative to the Protection of Privacy, in Svantesson, Dan J.B.; & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza, eds, Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy. Cambridge: Intersentia (451–505).
Lemaitre, Julieta & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Structural Remedies and the One Million Pesos: On the Limits of Court-Ordered Social Change for Internally Displaced Women in Colombia, in Rubenstein, Kim; & Katharine G. Young, eds, The Public Law of Gender from the Local to the Global. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (99–122).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Law in the militarization of cyber space: framing a critical research agenda, in Friis, Karsten; & Jens Ringsmose, eds, Conflict in Cyber Space: Theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge (175–197).
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Introduction: What Does It Take to Be Good?, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate (1–25).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Public Order Drone: Promises, Proliferation and Disorder in Civil Airspace, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate (109–128).
Lidén, Kristoffer & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Poison Pill or Cure-All: Drones and the Protection of Civilians, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate. London: Ashgate (65–88).
Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Introduction: The Quest for an Accountability Cure, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Katja Lindskov Jacobsen, eds, UNHCR and the Struggle for Accountability, Technology, law and results-based management. London: Routledge Humanitarian Studies (1–25).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) How accountability technologies shape international protection: results-based management and rights-based approaches revisited, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Katja Lindskov Jacobsen, eds, UNHCR and the Struggle for Accountability, Technology, law and results-based management. London: Routledge Humanitarian Studies (138–158).
Lidén, Kristoffer (2016) The UN and International Ethics, in Jubilut, Liliana Lyra ; João Carlos Jarochinski Silva; & Larissa Ramina, eds, The UN at 70: contributions, challenges and perspectives [A ONU aos 70: contribuições, desafios e perspectivas]. Boa Vista: Editora da Universidade Federal de Roraima (144–171).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Political and Moral Economies of Dual Technology Transfers: Arming Police Drones, in Aleš Završnik, ed., Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance. Berlin: Springer International Publishing (45–66).
Brekke, Torkel (2015) The Indian Tradition, in James Turner Johnson, ed., Ashgate Research Companion to Military Ethics. London: Ashgate (415–427).
Tønnesson, Stein (2015) The 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea: Why Has It Not Brought More Peace and Cooperation?, in Le, Thuy Trang; & Trong Thuy Tran, eds, Power, Law, and Maritime Order In the South China Sea. Lanham: Lexington Books (91–100).
Lidén, Kristoffer & Henrik Syse (2015) The Politics of Peace and Law: Realism, Internationalism and the Cosmopolitan Challenge, in Larsen, Kjetil M. ; & Cecilia Bailliet, eds, Promoting Peace Through International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press (21–42).
Marsh, Nicholas & Atina Karim (2015) Article 13 Reporting, in Wood, Brian; & Clare da Silva, eds, Weapons and International Law: the Arms Trade Treaty. Brussels, Ghent, Luxembourg, Paris: Larcier (213–230).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: A Bottom-Up Reading of Law in Post-Conflict Transitions, in Saul, Matthew; & James A. Sweeney, eds, International Law and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Policy. London and New York: Routledge (251–271).
Brekke, Torkel (2014) The Sikh Tradition, in Reichberg, Gregory M.; & Henrik Syse, eds, The Comparative Ethics of War. New York: Cambridge University Press (672–701).
Reichberg, Gregory M. (2013) History of Just War Theory, in Hugh LaFollette, ed., International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.
Reichberg, Gregory M. (2013) Jacques Maritain, in Kristiansen, Ståle Johannes; & Svein Rise, eds, Key Theological Thinkers: from Modern to Postmodern. London: Ashgate (657–668).
Brekke, Torkel (2012) The Dharam Yudh or Just War in Sikhism, in Kaushik Roy, ed., Warfare and Politics In South Asia from Ancient to Modern Times. New Dehli: Manohar (387–414).

Edited Volume

von Braun, Joachim; Margaret S. Archer; Gregory M. Reichberg; & Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, eds, (2021) Robotics, AI, and Humanity: Science, Ethics, and Policy. Cham: Springer.
Svantesson, Dan J.B.; & Dariusz (Darek) Kloza, eds, (2017) Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Relations as a Challenge for Democracy. Cambridge: Intersentia. European Integration and Democracy Series, Vol. 4.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Katja Lindskov Jacobsen, eds, (2016) UNHCR and the Struggle for Accountability: Technology, law and results-based management. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Routledge Humanitarian Studies.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, (2016) The Good Drone. Oxon, New York: Routledge.
Reichberg, Gregory M.; & Henrik Syse, eds, (2014) Religion, War, and Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brekke, Torkel (ed.) (2009) The Ethics of War in Asian Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge.
Syse, Henrik; & Gregory M. Reichberg, eds, (2007) Ethics, Nationalism, and Just War: Medieval and Contemporary Perspectives. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (ed.) (2004) The Future of Humanitarian Mine Action. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Hayashi, Nobuo (2013) Military Necessity as Normative Indifference, Georgetown Journal of International Law 44(2): 675–782.

Popular Article

Lidén, Kristoffer & Kristina Roepstorff (2020) Red Lines and Grey Zones: Ethical dilemmas in humanitarian negotiations and the need for a research agenda, Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies Blog, 2 October.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019) Is Legal Technology a New “Moment” in the Law and Development Trajectory?, ANTIPODE, 4 December.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2016) Against the Merger of Humanitarianism with Development and Security, Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies Blog, 31 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Refugee Crisis as a Global Humanitarian Challenge, European Council of Foreign Relations, 3 February.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: Transition from Humanitarian Crisis through Law Reform?, Reliefweb, 1 December.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2015) What's wrong with the idea that 'robots don't rape'?, Open Democracy, 1 November.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2015) Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Killing the ‘Robots-don’t-Rape’ Argument, IntLawGrrls, 5 August.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) Beyond Sexual Violence: Gendered Political Insecurity as a Threat to Peace, IntLawGrrls, 8 April.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Evaluating Ebola: the politics of the military response narrative, EISF, 16 March.
Jakobsen, Jonas & Odin Lysaker (2014) Den sekulære religiøse tidsalder, Morgenbladet, 12 December.
Syse, Henrik & Odin Lysaker (2014) Slik får vi en anstendig debatt, Aftenposten, 22. september, 22 September.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maral Mirshahi & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Killer robots – hvorfor ønsker man et forbud? [Killer Robots - The Quest for a Ban], NRK Ytring, 12 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Issues for the International Community, Security & Defence Agenda, 9 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Nicholas Marsh & Maral Mirshahi (2014) The Struggle to Ban Killer Robots, Bullentin of Atomic Scientists, 7 May.
Lysaker, Odin & Henrik Syse (2013) Ingen ytringsfrihet uten etikk [No freedom of speech without ethics], Aftenposten, 29 mai, 29 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra ubemannede fly til drapsroboter [From UAVs to killer robots], NRK Ytring, 27 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Droner truer demokratiet, Klassekampen, .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2011) Morgendagens Kriger [Tomorrow's Wars], Aftenposten, 20 June.

PRIO Report

Barsegov, Yuri; & Helena E. Vylegjanina (1992) International Environmental Law: New Dynamics, PRIO Report, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Riseth, Inga Marie Nymo (2018) Questionable Intentions, Good Practice. Norwegian Aid to Education Influenced by the Objective of Preventing Violent Extremism. MA thesis, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Nicholson, Joanna (2010) Erdemović: an International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law Perspective. MA thesis, Department of Public Law, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Stigum, Marielle (2009) Media Discourse and the Migrant : Constructing Migrant Legality and Illegality in France. MA thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Wiggen, Oddny (1999) Should there be a Right to Secession in International Law? : moral arguments and international law. MA thesis, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Conference Paper

Lidén, Kristoffer (2018) Contested imaginations of peace: justice, truth and power in the ethics of peace agreements, presented at Peace Operations and Peace Agreements: Experiences from the Global South, PUC Rio, Brazil, 28 May.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2018) Discussing the ethics of countering violent extremism, presented at Countering radicalisation: What can and cannot be done? At CEPS Ideas Lab 2018: "Europe - Back on Track", 22-23 February, Brussels, 23 February.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Harmonising Security with Human Rights, presented at SOURCE Societal Security Conference - Global Threats, Local Actors, 21-22 March, Haus der Europäischen Union, Vienna, 22 March.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Oiling the machinery of the European security industry? The Ethics of Ethics in EU Security Research, presented at Trade, Commerce and Societal Values in the Digital Age: A European Perspective, Stockholm University, 16 March.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) The Ethics of Biometric Security Technologies, presented at SOURCE Societal Security Conference - Global Threats, Local Actors, 21-22 March, Haus der Europäischen Union, Vienna, 22 March.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Power and Protection: Protection of Civilians and the Geopolitics of Norms at the UN Security Council, presented at BISA 42nd Annual Conference, Roundtable on R2P as a Norm, and its Implementation, Brighton, UK, 15 June.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Ought human rights to be promoted through global governance in the name of peacebuilding?, presented at CRIC Seminar, Human Rights and Peacebuilding Project, University of Copenhagen, Department of Political Science, 28 August.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Ethics and extremism: perceptions of the role of values in counter-radicalisation, presented at EISA YRW: Dissecting the radical: knowledge production and policy-making through the (de-)radicalisation prism, at 11th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, 12-16 September, Barcelona, Spain, 12 September.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Security, critique and normative orders, presented at Contemporary conditions of critique: power, value(s), economy, PhD Course, Research School on Peace and Conflict, PRIO, Oslo, Norway, 22 September.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Policing ideas: the counter-democratic effects of technologies for Countering Violent Extremism, presented at Rethinking the technology-security nexus in Europe. 1st INTERSECT workshop, 26-27 October, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden, 27 October.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) The Politics of Public Risk Communication in Norway, presented at Studying Nordic Societal Security: Threat- or Risk-Based Discourses? 16-17 November, Graduate School of International Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, 17 November.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Introduction to the ethics of humanitarian action, presented at Humanitarian Studies Colloquium: The Ethics of Humanitarian Action – rationale and critique of a do-gooder regime, PRIO, Oslo, 27 November.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) National Risk Assessments and the Politics of Public Risk Communication, presented at Communicating Risk in the Digital Age: Dilemmas and Opportunities Presented to Authorities and the Public, PRIO, Oslo, 6 December.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Policing Ideas: the counter-democratic effects of technologies for countering violent extremism, presented at Many Faces of Political Violence and Societal Security, NordSTEVA Annual Conference, 7-8 December, University of Tampere, Finland, 7 December.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2016) The Ethics of the Protection of Civilians: Beyond Intervention and Resilience, presented at The World Conference on Humanitarian Studies, Addis Ababa, 5 March.
Lohne, Kjersti & Anette Bringedal Houge (2016) The fight against impunity: The construction of a panacea for sexual violence in conflict?, presented at International Studies Association, Atlanta, 18 March.
Lohne, Kjersti (2016) Cosmopolitan legalism, criminal justice and human rights NGOs, presented at International Studies Association, Atlanta, 18 March.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Drones for Humanitarian «Interventions», presented at Drones: From Technology to Policy, Security to Ethics, Zürich, 30.01.2015.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Oiling the Machinery of European Security Technology? The role of ethics in EU Security Research, presented at International Studies Association, Annual Convention , New Orleans, 21 Februrary 2015.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Luhmann goes to Juba: a systems theoretical perspective on the postliberal condition, presented at Worlds of Violence: 9th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, European International Studies Association, Giardini Naxos, Sicily, Italy , 26 September 2015.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) What ‘society’ must be defended? The ethics of societal security in Norway, presented at Worlds of Violence: 9th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, European International Studies Association, Giardini Naxos, Sicily, Italy , 26 September.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Actors, agendas and legal categories in post-war Colombia. Armed Non State Actors and Access to Health in Armed Conflict, presented at Armed Non State Actors and Access to Health in Armed Conflict, Oslo, 12.02.2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Drone Pilots, Humanitarians and the Videogame Analogy: Unpacking the ConversationTrondheim, 5–7 February.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra dronekrig til UAV i det sivile luftrom - Globale trender og utfordringerLuftfartskonferansen 2013, Bodø.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2013Internasjonal rett og militariseringen av cyberspace, presented at Fokus: Cyberspace og sikkerhet.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Technology Transfers from the Military to the Humanitarian Field: the Rise of the Humanitarian Drone, presented at Humanitarianism: Past, Present, Future, , .
Lidén, Kristoffer 2012 Recipe for Disaster: Violent Rebellion and Humanitarian Intervention, presented at Humanitarianism: past, present, future, , 8–10 November 2012.
Lidén, Kristoffer 2012 In Love with a Lie? On the Political Preconditions for Global Peacebuilding Governance, presented at New Frontiers for Peacebuilding: Hybridity, Governance, and Local Agency, , 13–14 September 2012.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Robot Technology and the Drone Stare: Seeing or Unseeing Humanitarian Suffering?, presented at Political Theatres of Suffering: Humanitarian Politics and Representation of Distant Suffering, , .

PRIO Policy Brief

Jensehaugen, Jørgen; Kristoffer Lidén & Isabel Bramsen (2022) At the Gates to Peace: Mediators as Gatekeepers, PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Loyle, Cyanne; Dacan Nobert; Nkayimbi Sarah; Acen Susan Oroma & Lino Owor Ogora (2021) Justice during the War with the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Marsh, Nicholas & Ilaria Carrozza (2021) Human Rights Violations and the Security Forces in Mali and Niger, PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Tryggestad, Torunn L. (2016) The Women, Peace and Security Agenda – 15 Years On, GPS Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Skjelsbæk, Inger; Nora Sveaass & Rikke Marie Gjerde Kvaale (2015) Therapeutic Prosecutions?, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Contestations over National Identity and Diversity, PRIO Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Cyberwar as an Issue of International law, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in the Global Legal Order, PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Cohen, David (2007) War Crimes Tribunals and the Limits of Accountability, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Hartmann, Florence (2007) International Politics and International Criminal Justice, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Ingunn Ikdahl; Kjersti Lohne; Maja Viktoria Spigseth Vestad; Anniken Sørlie & Marit Moe-Pryce (2022) Law after July 22, 2011: Survivors, Memory and Reconstruction, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2019) Technologizing the Fight against Sexual Violence: A Critical Scoping, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Corney, Neil & Nicholas Marsh (2013) Aiming for Control: The need to include ammunition in the Arms Trade Treaty, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Towards a Militarization of Cyberspace-Cyberwar as an Issue of International Law, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Lidén, Kristoffer (2018) Norms and Ethics in Security Preparedness, SOURCE Societal Security Network. .
Lidén, Kristoffer (2018) Ethics and Extremism: Report on ethical and legal parameters for dealing with extremism, SOURCE Societal Security Network, 6. .
Rødningen, Ida (2017) Not so Smart Cities? A Guide to Helping Cities Develop Ethical Data Strategies, LASIE Seminar Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Rødningen, Ida (2017) From Risk Management to Security Culture: the Changing Organization of Security, LASIE Seminar Report, 4. Oslo.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2017) Ethics Report 2, SOURCE Project, D1.6, SOURCE Societal Security Network. .
Bergersen, Stine (2017) Artificial Police Agents: Looking Awry, LASIE Seminar Report, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Boy, Nina; Elida K. U. Jacobsen; & Kristoffer Lidén (2016) Societal Ethics and Biometric Technologies, SOURCE Societal Security Network. Oslo: SOURCE.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Ethics Report 1, SOURCE Deliverables, 2. SOURCE Virtual Centre of Excellence For Research Support and Coordination on Societal Security.
Lidén, Kristoffer; & Ben Hayes (2015) Report on human values in threat analysis, SOURCE Deliverables, 6. SOURCE Virtual centre of excellence for research support and coordination on societal security.
Lemaitre, Julieta; Eva Sol López; Juan Pablo Mosquera; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; & Juliana Vargas Gómez (2014) De desplazados a víctimas. Los cambios legales y la participación de la Mesa de Víctimas de Mocoa, Putumayo. [Displaced Victims. Legal Changes and Involvement of the Bureau of Victims of Mocoa, Putumayo.]8. Colombia: Universidad de los Andes (Justica Global).
Lemaitre, Julieta; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; Luz Estella Romero Villalba; Ana Manuela Ochoa Arias; Valentina González Villegas; & Sandra Vargas Mahecha (2014) Defensoras de derechos humanos Tres estudios de casos de ONG y su respuesta al desplazamiento forzado [Human Rights Defenders, Three Studies of NGO's and Response to Forced Displacement]9. Colombia: Universidad de los Andes (Justica Global).

Report - External Series

Akal, Ayşe Bala (2022) Tacit engagement as a form of remote management: Risk aversity in the face of sanctions regimes, NCHS Paper. Oslo: Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies.
Atwii, Franziska; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; Lotte Kirch; Beáta Paragi; Katrin Radtke; Sören Schneider; & Daniel Weller (2022) WorldRiskReport 2022 Focus: Digital Risks in Disaster Situations, The World Risk Report. Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft - Ruhr University Bochum - Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV.
Reid-Henry, Simon; Valsamis Mitsilegas; Sophie Harman; Mario Slugan; David McCoy; Sydney Calkin; Aoife Monks; Gülnur Muradoglu; & Stella Ladi (2022) How to Trust in a Pandemic: Report of the Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences (IHSS) Working Group on COVID-19, IHSS Working Group on Covid-19, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences. Queen Mary University of London.
Kundnani, Arun; & Ben Hayes (2018) The globalisation of Countering Violent Extremism policies: Undermining human rights, instrumentalising civil society, TNI Report. Transnational Institute (TNI) in association with SOURCE Network on Societal Security.
Kloza, Dariusz (Darek); Niels van Dijk; Raphaël Gellert; István Böröcz; Alessia Tanas; Eugenio Mantovani; & Paul Quinn (2017) Data protection impact assessments in the European Union: complementing the new legal framework towards a more robust protection of individuals, d.pia.lab Policy Brief, 1. Brussels: Brussels Laboratory for Data Protection & Privacy Impact Assessments.

Blog Posts

50 Years Hence: Can the Apollo Missions Inspire Us Today?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Tuesday, 20 December 2022

Last week, 50 years ago, Apollo 17’s lunar module left the moon. Since then, no one has set foot there. Let us pause for a moment to think about the signficance of that rather unique adventure called Apollo. The Apollo program defies belief. At a time when much of modern ... Read more »

When Are Economic Sanctions Morally Justified?

Posted by Lars Christie, Bashshar Haydar & Kristoffer Lidén on Thursday, 17 November 2022

In spite of widespread support for the sanctions against Russia after the invasion of Ukraine, international economic sanctions remain a controversial instrument in world politics. In this blog post, we discuss how the ethical criteria of just cause, proportionality, last resort and reasonable chance of success can help us think ... Read more »

The US Declares Chip-War on China

Posted by Giacomo Bruni on Wednesday, 26 October 2022

The United States recently announced a new set of restrictions on the export of advanced semiconductors, chip-making equipment, and supercomputer components to China. The interim final rule further escalates the geopolitical dispute between the US and China and raises concerns about the increasing fragmentation of the digital domain. The interim ... Read more »

Sexual Violence by Military Leaders: The Canadian Leadership Crisis

Posted by Anna Marie Obermeier on Wednesday, 5 October 2022

Content Warning: This blog contains content related to sexual violence and sexual assault. The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) is steeped in a culture of sexual misconduct. CAF leadership has allowed an environment of sexual misconduct to fester for decades, stretching from military colleges through every branch of the military. Thirteen ... Read more »

Different Responses to Mobility at Europe’s Borders

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Tuesday, 12 April 2022

In the weeks since Russia’s brutal invasion of Ukraine significant proportions of Ukraine’s population has gone on the move, the majority of whom are internally displaced. By 29th March 2022, 4 million people had fled Ukraine across borders to neighbouring countries: Poland (2 million in 3 weeks), Slovakia, Hungary, Romania ... Read more »

The Taliban, International Law and the Rest of the World

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken & Geir Ulfstein on Monday, 21 March 2022

The population of Afghanistan is facing a humanitarian catastrophe. Twenty-three million Afghans, more than half of the population, are starving. The UN warns of a risk that a million Afghan children will die. In this situation, there is no way of avoiding cooperation with those in control of the country, namely ... Read more »

What Motivates Soldiers to Fight, asks Jon Elster

Posted by Jon Elster on Sunday, 13 March 2022

Many commentators have claimed that Russia’s military leaders must have underestimated the Ukrainians’ resilience and battle morale. This is most likely correct, but would it even have been possible for the Russian commanders to have made a more accurate estimate? There is reason to doubt that they could have done ... Read more »

Forced Displacement from Ukraine: Notes on Humanitarian Protection and Durable Solutions

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Adèle Garnier on Saturday, 5 March 2022

The Russian invasion of Ukraine February 24 2022 marks the start of a new displacement crisis. In a statement on February 24, Filippo Grandi, the High Commissioner for Refugees, emphasized that ‘The humanitarian consequences on civilian populations will be devastating. There are no winners in war, but countless lives will ... Read more »

Russia Has Violated the Fundamental Rules of International Law. What Are the Consequences?

Posted by Malcolm Langford & Geir Ulfstein on Wednesday, 2 March 2022

Vladimir Putin’s speech on 24 February was not only a formal announcement of his invasion of Ukraine, but also a defence of this use of force under international law. The fact that Russia is relying on international law is no surprise – Russia has always done so. The question is ... Read more »

How Did Europe Get into This Predicament? We Must Look in Our Own Backyard

Posted by Sverre Lodgaard on Thursday, 24 February 2022

It’s easy to condemn the opposing party in a polarized situation. But it’s more difficult to exercise self-criticism. It’s easy to condemn the opposing party in a polarized situation. Particularly when there are good reasons for such condemnation, as in the current situation. It’s easy to state that Russia’s lust ... Read more »

When Terrorists Mobilize Law: Reflections on justice and closure after July 22

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik, Anette Bringedal Houge & Solveig Laugerud on Sunday, 16 January 2022

During January 18-21, the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik will have his request for parole adjudicated by the Telemark District Court over a four-day trial. In 2012, he was sentenced to preventive detention for a term of twenty-one years and a minimum period of ten years for the July 22, ... Read more »

Giant Fake Ladybugs on Tanks? The Future of Warfare in the Age of Artificial Intelligence and the Need for Ethics

Posted by Kelly Fisher on Tuesday, 21 December 2021

In September this year, Chief Software Officer for the U.S. Air Force Nicholas Chaillian, unexpectedly resigned. The reason for his resignation? To protest the slow pace of technological transformation taking place in the U.S. military, and where he argued the U.S. had already lost the race for AI dominance to ... Read more »

22 July 2011: Contested Closures

Posted by Anette Bringedal Houge on Thursday, 2 December 2021

As part of PRIO’s contribution to the 10 year commemoration of 22 of July, the author challenges perceptions of justice after mass atrocity that equates justice with law and criminal justice with closure. After mass violence, “the promised exercise of legal justice — of justice by trial and law — ... Read more »

European Union-Belarus Border Crisis: Why the narrative of “hybrid warfare” is dangerous

Posted by Ayse Bala Akal on Wednesday, 24 November 2021

The 2021 EU-Belarus border crisis was preceded by a rapid deterioration of the already strained European Union (EU)-Belarus relations, in most part due to the Ryanair 4978 incident and the concomitant wide-ranging sanctions imposed by the EU on the authoritarian government of the Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, who has often been referred by the media ... Read more »

Remembering 22 July: Litigating Memorials

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Monday, 13 September 2021

As of July 2021 the memorials commemorating the 22 July attack include the Government Quarter, with the temporary memorial plaque and the 22 July Centre; Hegnhuset on Utøya; the 1000 iron roses next to Oslo Cathedral; 52 identical commemorative stone sculptures in affected municipalities across Norway; and as well as ... Read more »

Artificial Intelligence, Warfare, and Bias

Posted by Kelly Fisher on Monday, 6 September 2021

When you think about Artificial Intelligence (AI) and war, you might find yourself thinking about killer robots, like those we have seen in movies such as The Terminator. In reality, AI and warfare looks quite different from these popularized images, and today we see many countries around the world exploring ... Read more »

Norway After the Terror

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Friday, 23 July 2021

Preface On the occasion of the 10th anniversary for the terror attacks in in Oslo and at Utøya on 22 July 2011, there is a renewed debate in Norway. The main focus is on the political motivations for the attack, as well as on how Norway has dealt with (or ... Read more »

Terror Did Not Strike Indiscriminately

Posted by Trond Bakkevig on Tuesday, 20 July 2021

22nd JULY 2011: a terrorist killed 68 young people and bombed the Government Quarter, where he killed nine people and injured many more, because the ‘Labour-Party state’ was promoting ethnic, religious and political diversity. “Then they came for me — and there was no one left to speak out for ... Read more »

On Words and World-Making:  Law professors, power and responsibility

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Thursday, 27 May 2021

On 6 May 2021, something extraordinary happened in Norwegian academia: in an op-ed in the newspaper Stavanger Aftenblad, Ole Gjems-Onstad, a law professor at BI Norwegian Business School (BI), criticized the Labour Party and 22 July survivors for a lack of self-criticism. The op-ed was met with disbelief, horror and ... Read more »

Norwegian Quarantine Hotels: Infection Control or Penal Measure?

Posted by Michael Bretthauer, Hans Petter Graver,  Lise Helsingen, Mette Kalager, Hedvig Montgomery, Anna Nylund, Magnus Løberg & Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 31 March 2021

Quarantine hotels and Easter trips According to the Norwegian government, quarantine hotels are an infection-control measure. In this blog post we contest this view, and argue that the rules are penal in character. “We” are all Norwegian: four medical doctors, one psychologist, and three jurists. The rules distinguish between “necessary” ... Read more »

Why Digital Vaccine Passports are a Bad Idea: the Norwegian Perspective

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik, Michael Bretthauer, Anna Nylund, Einar Øverenget, Magnus Løberg & Ørjan Olsvik on Friday, 26 March 2021

Expanding the use of Covid-19 digital vaccine passports to domestic purposes would in practice represent a return to the checkpoint permit (in Norwegian ‘passerseddel’, in German “Passierschein”), a form of internal passport. This type of document is associated with authoritarian regimes and with war and conflict, last used in Norway ... Read more »

The Pomp of Popular Constitutional Outrage

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik, Hans Petter Graver & Peter Scharff Smith on Tuesday, 9 March 2021

The democratic struggle over the Norwegian Covid-19 curfew proposal. Up until a year ago, no one could have anticipated the scope, intensity, and character of the current Norwegian debate on some of the most central civil rights in a democratic society. With the advent of the COVID-19 lockdown and the ... Read more »

Tech-Based States of Emergency: some key takeaways

Posted by Neven Ahmad on Tuesday, 23 February 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered the acceleration of pre-existing technological trends. As states introduce new rules and technological solutions to fight the pandemic, it can be tempting to view these technological applications as neutral scientific decisions. However, we must critically examine these decisions because times of crisis set standards which ... Read more »

Public-Private Partnerships during COVID-19: time to ask some questions

Posted by Neven Ahmad on Friday, 30 October 2020

To say that the world was not prepared for a pandemic is an understatement. The point was made early on that in order to overcome COVID-19 and make it to the other side, it was “all hands-on deck”. This included individuals, health experts, governments, the private sector and – the ... Read more »

The individual, the national, and the global: New connections in times of China-US confrontation

Posted by Ilaria Carozza on Monday, 26 October 2020

As the ongoing confrontation between the US and China has entered the technological and digital realms, we are pushed to rethink the relationship between individuals, nations and the entire world as more fluid than it has ever been before. While we grapple with these changes, the EU is on the ... Read more »

COVID-19 puts India’s e-governance infrastructure and innovation to the test

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Anjoo Sharan Upadhyaya on Monday, 28 September 2020

India’s e-governance and digitalization drive harnesses ‘smart’ technology in an effort to generate new economic opportunities, boost economic growth, govern more efficiently with less corruption, and distribute relief and benefits to the poor and disadvantaged more effectively. In April 2015, India’s National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Prime Minister ... Read more »

The SDGs, access to civil justice, and legal technology

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 20 May 2020

This blog critically assesses the potential of legal tech for improving access to civil justice as measured by the new Sustainable Development Goals indicator 16.3.3. Unresolved legal issues engender marginalisation. The need for better legal aid services is significant not only in Least Developed Countries, but remains a challenge in emerging and ... Read more »

Drones in the Time of Pandemic: Caution Behind the Hype

Posted by Bruno Oliveira Martins, Chantal Lavallée & Andrea Silkoset on Friday, 24 April 2020

The fight against the COVID-19 pandemic has mobilized national and international resources of all types, from funding of medical research to financial rescue plans, and has led to widespread state of emergency declarations. While the approaches adopted all over the world have differed from one country to another, an underlying ... Read more »

Whose Needs? Reflections on Health Information and Minorities

Posted by Anne Hellum, Kristin B. Sandvik, Tatanya Ducran Valland & Marta Bivand Erdal on Tuesday, 14 April 2020

On 1 April, the Norwegian News Agency (NTB) reported that rates of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection among Norwegian-Somalis were significantly higher than among other foreign-born inhabitants of Norway. Hospitals are reporting that 30–40 percent of patients who test positive for the virus are from immigrant backgrounds. The government has now granted NOK ... Read more »

Corona Apps – Where Are We Headed?

Posted by Mareile Kaufmann on Wednesday, 8 April 2020

When I observe the surveillance and disciplinary measures spreading together with COVID-19, questions arise. It is not just professionals who should have the answers. Everyone asks themselves where this pandemic is headed. That is probably why the road towards monitoring measures is short, and often necessary. After all, a virus ... Read more »

Korona og rettsstaten

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik, Malcolm Langford & Kristoffer Lidén on Wednesday, 25 March 2020

Tirsdag 24. mars ble den nye koronaloven vedtatt av Stortinget. Dagen før arrangerte Juridisk fakultet og PRIO webinaret “Korona og rettsstaten: hva skal vi med fullmaktsloven”. Arrangementet gikk via Zoom og hadde 600 deltagere. En redigert versjon kan også sees på youtube. Webinaret – som i utgangspunktet skulle spisse kritikken ... Read more »

Philosophy and Ethics in the Age of Corona Virus

Posted by Henrik Syse on Monday, 16 March 2020

It has been interesting to see how many news outlets and broadcasters ask for angles and insights these days from what we can broadly call a philosophical perspective. As we face the COVID-19 pandemic, I am one of those to be asked, and I humbly try to contribute. So, what ... Read more »

Teaching transitional justice after conflict and terror: Cases of Kosovo and Norway

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Friday, 21 February 2020

Kristin Bergtora Sandvik and Kjersti Lohne ask: How can education help to realize the multiple goals and visions of transitional justice, and how can transnational justice be adapted to new educational objectives? This is the first post in an occasional series on the legal, bureaucratic and political aftermaths of the July ... Read more »

SDGs and the Rule of Law: the need to globalize the ethics of legal tech

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Monday, 17 February 2020

In the context of the rapid adoption and integration of legal technology at a global level, this blog post will problematize the consequences of the bias of current discussions on the ethics of legal tech in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs strongly emphasize the importance ... Read more »

Is Legal Technology a New ‘Moment’ in the Law and Development Trajectory?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Friday, 14 February 2020

Introduction This post addresses an emergent field of inquiry for critical geography, namely the transnational dissemination of legal technology for rule of law purposes. Whereas critical attention has been given to digital humanitarianism and the “marketization” of displacement through Big Data (Burns 2019; Taylor and Meissner 2019), little focus has ... Read more »

“Drone technology has democratized”: An Interview with Bruno Oliveira Martins and Andrea Silkoset

Posted by Indigo Trigg-Hauger, Bruno Oliveira Martins, Andrea Silkoset & Heiko Schaub on Tuesday, 4 February 2020

On February 12 PRIO will host a launch event for the report: Counter-Drone Systems: Implications for Norway in an EU and NATO context. The report aims to comprehensively address opportunities and potential risks, associated with the implementation of counter-drone technology (C-UAS). Together with Arthur Holland Michel, PRIO researchers Bruno Oliveira ... Read more »

The Dark Side of Justice

Posted by Julie Jarland on Tuesday, 28 January 2020

Court proceedings don’t necessarily help bring about peace; sometimes they do quite the opposite. It is easy to agree that people who have committed gruesome crimes should be held accountable. But in the fight against impunity for international crimes, we risk ignoring the consequences of the legal systems we are promoting.   Trials do not necessarily help bring about peace and are sometimes counterproductive. It might be time ... Read more »

The Weaponization of Killer Trucks: Vehicular Terror and Vehicular Crypts

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Monday, 11 November 2019

On October 23, 2019, 39 bodies were found inside a refrigerator lorry on an industrial estate in Essex. The vehicle was registered in Varna, Bulgaria, had entered the UK four days before and was driven by a man from Northern-Ireland. The victims – 38 adults and a teenager – were identified as ... Read more »

The EU’s Response to the Drone Age: A United Sky

Posted by Neven Ahmad on Monday, 23 September 2019

The European Union’s vision for an integrated Europe has reached new heights. With the release of the highly anticipated guidelines for unmanned aircrafts, the EU takes a big step toward a singular sky. Violeta Bulc, EU Commissioner for Transport, stated that “the EU will now have the most advanced rules ... Read more »

Trump calls, Israel answers

Posted by Jørgen Jensehaugen on Friday, 16 August 2019

On Thursday President Trump made the unprecedented move to use a foreign power to punish domestic political actors. He tweeted that Israel should bar two congresswomen from entering the country. Prior to this tweet Prime Minister Netanyahu had decided that the congresswomen should be allowed to enter, but after the ... Read more »

Facing terror: The possibility of hope and the need to confront hatred

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal, Rojan Tordhol Ezzati & Henrik Syse on Wednesday, 14 August 2019

In the wake of the foiled terrorist attack at a mosque outside Oslo on 10 August, and the widespread solidarity seen outside mosques around Norway on the morning of Eid, we reflect on the prospects for hope and for the endurance of social fabric. We do so by drawing on ... Read more »

New Report on the Societal Ethics of Biometric Technologies

Posted by Elida Kristine Undrum Jacobsen on Friday, 15 March 2019

Biometric technologies are rapidly becoming integral to the governance of populations world-wide. Contemporary societies are networked by advanced biometric technologies of identity management that were inconceivable just a couple of decades ago. A report by Nina Boy, Elida K.U. Jacobsen and Kristoffer Lidén addresses the widespread ethical issues raised by ... Read more »

The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal Cost Refugees the Most

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Pinar Tank on Wednesday, 23 January 2019

Note: On 18 March 2016, the EU and Turkey agreed on a deal to stop refugees from crossing the Mediterranean. At that time, Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert and Pinar Tank warned that the agreement was advantageous for Europe and Turkey but not for the refugees whose rights to protection were severely ... Read more »

The Needs, Challenges and Power Dynamics of Refugee Resettlement

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik, Liliana Lyra Jubilut & Adèle Garnier on Monday, 29 October 2018

This fall, the 73rd General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) was held in New York. The 193 UN member states gather annually to discuss, and sometimes act upon, global issues. Refugees were on the agenda in 2018, not only because numbers are historically high (25.4 million at the end ... Read more »

The mass killing of women activists in Latin America: making political violence visible

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Friday, 28 September 2018

In 2017, Latin America was described by the UN as the world’s most violent continent for women. The assassinations of women activists and community leaders have continued across the region in 2018. While the killing of Marielle Franco, a favela community leader, and the unraveling of government-private enterprise collusion in ... Read more »

The Norwegian Libya Commission: An Important Report, But We’re Still Missing Answers

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 25 September 2018

The Norwegian government must have known that the 2011 bombing campaign in Libya could lead to the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, argues PRIO researcher Kristian Berg Harpviken. In light of the recent release of the commission’s official report on Norway’s participation in the military operation in Libya, Harpviken was asked ... Read more »

Nuclear Disarmament and The Nobel Peace Prize

Posted by Louise Olsson & Henrik Urdal on Tuesday, 10 October 2017

Since the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Linus Pauling in 1962, contributions to nuclear disarmament have recurrently been an explicit motivation for granting the Prize.1 According to the Nobel Peace Prize committee, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) received the Prize this year for creating new momentum ... Read more »

A Daring Peace Prize

Posted by Gregory M. Reichberg on Tuesday, 10 October 2017

In selecting the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) for the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has made a daring move. This year’s laureate was the driving force behind the recently concluded Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. As of last Friday, October 6, the ... Read more »

Building a Sociology of Law for the Humanitarian Field

Posted by Kjersti Lohne & Kristin B. Sandvik on Thursday, 31 August 2017

Legal sociology has paid significant attention to human rights, but in contrast to legal anthropology, little focus has been given to humanitarianism. In this contribution, we ask, what does a legal sociological research agenda for the humanitarian field look like? Humanitarianism is many things to many people. As described by ... Read more »

Performing Grief

Posted by Francis Steen on Friday, 21 July 2017

As we discuss the relationship between public and private mourning and grief, consider the emotional handling of the Newtown school shooting in 2012, where twenty children were killed at Sandy Hook elementary school. Such a traumatic event destabilizes people, creating a felt deficit in emotional support. When President Obama visited ... Read more »

Private Loss and Public Mourning

Posted by Odin Lysaker on Friday, 21 July 2017

After dehumanizing events – such as the 2011 Norway terror attacks – emotions play a significant role in the public sphere. Let me offer a couple of examples: On August 21, only one month after Anders Behring Breivik killed a total of 77 people, Norway’s King Harald held a deeply ... Read more »

Collective Memories after National Traumas

Posted by Ida Rødningen on Tuesday, 2 May 2017

I represented the NECORE project at a one-day seminar held in February, entitled “Collective Memories after National Traumas: 22 July in an International Perspective”. The seminar was highly relevant to the themes explored by NECORE, and among the most important points raised during the seminar was that of a national ... Read more »

Memory and Conflict

Posted by Henrik Syse on Friday, 28 April 2017

The relationship between memory and conflict is one of several themes highlighted by the NECORE project, and it has recently come into focus again in an emotional way, related to the tragic events of 22/7. The bone of contention is the projected Utøya memorial. Where should such a memorial for ... Read more »

‘Our Values’ in Times of Terror

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Last fall I spent two months in Poitiers, France as a visiting researcher at Migrinter. The last time I lived in France before that was in 2008, just when the financial crisis fully hit. A lot has changed since then, some of it directly or indirectly linked to the financial ... Read more »

Let Not Your Heart Be Troubled

Posted by Henrik Syse on Thursday, 26 January 2017

Many people are afraid of what faces us with Donald Trump as president. Nonetheless, I recommend keeping a cool head. My area of research should be useful for analyzing and understanding politics, namely political philosophy. This is the branch of philosophy that investigates political ideas and attempts to put them ... Read more »

No-Man’s Land

Posted by Marte Heian-Engdal on Friday, 20 January 2017

In the north-eastern corner of Jordan, thousands of Syrians are left stranded. In the north-eastern corner of Jordan, where the country borders both Iraq and Syria, a barrier resembling a mound of earth extends across the desert. Running parallel to this barrier is a second mound of earth, this time ... Read more »

A Word of Warning ahead of 2017

Posted by Henrik Syse on Tuesday, 27 December 2016

Decency, humility, and thoughtfulness are core virtues in a civilized society. Now we need to fight for them. «Political correctness» can be a sinister labeling for common decency «Political correctness» can be a sinister labeling for common decency. A wish to preserve dignity and openness, and to avoid willfully disrespecting others’ ... Read more »

Get to Know Your Data Double!

Posted by Marit Moe-Pryce, Rocco Bellanova & Stine Bergersen on Wednesday, 23 November 2016

We all have a “data double”. But how well do you really know this other aspect of your identity? Unless you know what your entirely digital identity looks like, you should take responsibility for finding out and, at the same time, contribute to a digital drive to ensure that we ... Read more »

Moral Readiness – Do We Speak too Little About it?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Friday, 22 July 2016

Five years have passed since the shocking events of 22 July 2011. We still notice how these events have taken hold of us. We notice it all the more when similar terrorist attacks take place elsewhere in the world: in Istanbul, Dallas or Nice. We shed tears in sympathy with ... Read more »

A Sense of Community in Times of Terrorism

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Friday, 22 July 2016

In contrast to the impression one may derive from “the debate about the debate” in Norway, “we” – the overwhelming majority – can agree on many points, including the fact that we stand united in the struggle against extremism. We succeeded in doing so in the “rose marches” five years ... Read more »

Negotiating Collective Identities

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 21 July 2016

The 22 July attacks, now five years ago, bore horrific testimony to what an ideology of exclusion and hatred, at the hands of one man, can do. Whilst the terror was of such a scope that the moment called for a unified response, ideological cleavages along the Eurabia, anti-Islam, and ... Read more »

Receding into the Background?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Wednesday, 20 July 2016

As 22 July 2011 becomes a more distant memory, we are overwhelmed with massacres and terrorist attacks in other parts of the world, including fierce attacks in Turkey, France, and the United States. At the time of writing, the terrorist attack in Nice, France, is the most recent. Many of ... Read more »

Framing the UCLA Shooting Event

Posted by Francis Steen on Monday, 18 July 2016

Wednesday June 1st was my last day of Spring Quarter teaching at UCLA. At 9:50am, a BruinAlert trickled into my inbox announcing “Police Activity at Engineering Building 4. Avoid area until further notice” and a few minutes later “Shooting at Engineering 4. Go to secure location and deny entry (lockdown) ... Read more »

Blair’s Global Vision – and Lacking Knowledge Base

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 12 July 2016

Tony Blair took the decision to take part in the military intervention in Iraq in 2003 more or less on his own, and based it on very scant knowledge. Are there reasons to fear the same happening again? The British Chilcot Commission has released a crushing verdict over former PM ... Read more »

The Right to Decide: Exit and Basque Self-Determination

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Five years ago, the Basque militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom) announced a unilateral and permanent cessation of operations. Since then, the disappearance of political violence has given rise to a new debate on Basque nationhood: more inclusive, more open, more civic, and at the same time stronger in ... Read more »

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions: Are Norwegians more secure ... Read more »

Norway and Kenya Prepare for Forceful Returns of Somalis

Posted by Anab Ibrahim Nur on Sunday, 12 June 2016

As the blessed month of Ramadan begins, many here in Mogadishu are concerned about the security situation, with talks of increased numbers of Al-Shabaab insurgents entering the city in preparation of carrying out attacks. Driving through the Makka Al Mukram road, considered to be in the safe zone, that is, ... Read more »

The ‘Sovereign’ according to Ola Tunander

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Monday, 30 May 2016

On Friday 27 May 2016, PRIO celebrated Ola Tunander’s 30-year academic career with a seminar on ‘Sovereignty, Subs and PSYOPS’, and a reception. The celebration was, of course, focused on Ola and his work, spanning topics from the geopolitics and organic state theory of Rudolf Kjellén to the 27 October ... Read more »

Brought Up to Be a War Criminal

Posted by Kjersti Lohne & Anette Bringedal Houge on Wednesday, 11 May 2016

Dominic Ongwen has been charged with committing the same crimes that were committed against him as a child soldier in the Lord’s Resistance Army. To what extent is Ongwen responsible for his actions as an adult, given that he himself was abducted as a 10-year-old child? The International Criminal Court ... Read more »

Assisted Return Not a Permanent Solution for All Asylum Seekers

Posted by Arne Strand & Lovise Aalen on Tuesday, 3 May 2016

Many asylum seekers who choose assisted return are from a country destroyed by war and conflict. More than half of those who return to countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq plan to migrate again. Assisted return is a viable type of support to assist with the return, but is not ... Read more »

The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal is Costly – Especially for the Refugees

Posted by Pinar Tank & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Thursday, 7 April 2016

The agreement reflects the EU’s self-interest just as much as Turkey’s, but takes little account of the interests and rights of the refugees. On Friday 18 March, Turkey and the EU concluded a deal designed to put an end to refugees’ use of the sea route to travel from Turkey ... Read more »

The Iranian Nuclear Issue

Posted by Gregory M. Reichberg on Thursday, 18 February 2016

I have been tracking the Iranian nuclear issue for about ten years. Important in its own right, this issue also has significant implications for the international agenda on nuclear weapons disarmament. Let it be noted at the outset that the expression in question – “Iranian Nuclear Issue” – is a freighted ... Read more »

Why Not Nuke ISIS?

Posted by Gregory M. Reichberg on Friday, 4 December 2015

Last week I received a call from a journalist doing background research for an article.  The journalist wanted to know whether I thought a nuclear weapon could be used against ISIS. I was admittedly surprised at this question.  But apparently the journalist queried me about this issue because others are ... Read more »

What’s Wrong with the Idea that ‘Robots don’t Rape’?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Wednesday, 2 December 2015

The politics of rape denunciation is fast becoming the politics of lobbyists, vendors and military manufacturers seeking access to new customers and markets. The recognition of wartime rape as a fundamental violation of international law has been a hard-fought victory. Ending rape and other forms of sexual violence in war ... Read more »

How Much Should we Tolerate?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Friday, 27 November 2015

In his New Year’s Eve speech last year, King Harald used the expression “We should say kind words”. Some weeks later, many of us were saying “Je suis Charlie”, expressing solidarity with a periodical that published satire that many people certainly found was not kind at all. Can we reconcile ... Read more »

We are being Put to the Test

Posted by Henrik Syse on Wednesday, 9 September 2015

We must both take in refugees and preserve our culture and way of living. A flood of migrants is coming to Europe. They are fleeing chaos and war. They are from all levels of society. The vast majority would have remained in their homelands if they had been able. But ... Read more »

Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Killing the ‘Robots-don’t-Rape’ Argument

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Thursday, 13 August 2015

Earlier this spring, we debated a law professor who insisted that lethal autonomous weapons (LAWS) could clean up war. The professor posited that a war fought with autonomous weapons would be a war without rape. Taking humans out of the loop would, the argument goes, lead to more humane war. ... Read more »

The Important Debates – Four Years Later

Posted by Henrik Syse on Wednesday, 22 July 2015

Four years have passed since the biggest terror attacks on Norwegian soil during peacetime. Once again we are solemnly commemorating the dead and expressing our solidarity. The debate about the potential uses of the actual sites that were affected is also very much alive and continuing. But are there other ... Read more »

From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: Transition from Humanitarian Crisis through Law Reform?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Julieta Lemaitre on Wednesday, 1 July 2015

What are the challenges of responding to displacement as a problem of transitional justice? In the Colombian context, pervasive violent conflict coexists with constitutional democracy. In recent years, the legal framework for dealing with internal displacement has been altered by the 2011 Victims’ Law. Based on newly published work on ... Read more »

Therapeutic Prosecutions?

Posted by Inger Skjelsbæk, Nora Sveaass & Rikke Marie Gjerde Kvale on Wednesday, 6 May 2015

Assessing the therapeutic potential of criminal prosecution of international crimes at the International Criminal Court (ICC). Over the past twenty years, the global community has shown a renewed commitment to the pursuit of international criminal justice. A hallmark development in this regard is the establishment of the permanent International Criminal ... Read more »

Beyond Sexual Violence: Gendered Political Insecurity as a Threat to Peace

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Julieta Lemaitre on Monday, 13 April 2015

Based on extensive field research in Colombia, our new article “Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm” examines political insecurity as a specifically gendered harm that must be addressed in the ongoing Colombian transitional justice process. In a previous blogpost we described the tragic plight ... Read more »

The Hitler Analogy

Posted by Henrik Syse on Thursday, 9 April 2015

The Hitler analogy – also known as the Munich analogy – is deployed frequently in political debate. In Munich in 1938, the British prime minister made the historic error of failing to comprehend the extent of the evil represented by Adolf Hitler. Chamberlain signed a peace agreement with Hitler that ... Read more »

Legality and Courtesy

Posted by Trond Bakkevig on Friday, 30 January 2015

In his opinion article in the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten on 21 January, Per Edgar Kokkvold (secretary general in the Norwegian Press Association) stated the obvious, “It is people who must be protected – and who are protected under current legislation, under the law that prohibits discriminatory or hateful utterances, persecution ... Read more »

After Charlie Hebdo: We Must Never Cease to Protect the Rights of People who Provoke and Challenge

Posted by Henrik Syse on Thursday, 15 January 2015

Why do satirists and critics of religion have to be so provocative? Why must they publish images that they know to be offensive to some people’s beliefs and traditions – and that brutal extremists may use as a pretext for terrorist acts? That such questions are asked is understandable. But ... Read more »

The Road to Hell is Paved With Rapid Reactions

Posted by Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh on Wednesday, 14 January 2015

In the wake of a vicious crime, caution and restraint are a virtue. Once upon a time, in the realm of Xanadu, two and a half dim-witted but well-armed, well-funded and well-trained professional criminals committed cold-blooded murder, commando-style. While committing their crime, they uttered two sentences vocally and publically, following ... Read more »

Who is Charlie? And What Now?

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Tuesday, 13 January 2015

On Sunday 11 January France witnessed the largest rally on records of people taking to the streets with close to 4 million people all over the country, of which almost 1,5 million in Paris. The world saw one of the largest gatherings of state leaders in one place outside of ... Read more »

Norway's Outdated Citizenship Legislation

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 20 October 2014

The war in Syria, the threat of Islamic radicalisation, and fears that terrorists may recruit Norwegian citizens have sparked renewed debate about Norway’s citizenship legislation. Meanwhile, another debate continues to be forgotten: We call for a reopening of the debate on dual citizenship, as Norway’s antiquated legislation is out of ... Read more »

"Double Effect" in Gaza

Posted by Henrik Syse on Thursday, 21 August 2014

Recent weeks have shown us – yet again – how complex and terrible war is. We can all agree that terrorism and brutal fanaticism must be met with robust responses. But it is easy to say that one must do “something” (not to mention that one must do “more”). When ... Read more »

The Limits of post-22 July Media Debates

Posted by Tine Ustad Figenschou & Kjersti Thorbjørnsrud on Friday, 27 June 2014

In times of crisis, citizens and victims typically look to the government for leadership, protection, direction, and order – what is often characterized as a ‘master narrative’. Faced with terror and tragedy journalists seek to comfort and reassure the public, and willingly and instinctively move from their professional, neutral critical ... Read more »

Has Much Time Gone By?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Friday, 27 June 2014

One of the most famous anecdotes about the passing of time is from the early 1970s, when Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai was asked what he thought about the French Revolution, to which he replied: ‘It is too early to say’. The fact that the interpreter has later pointed out that ... Read more »

On Distance and Proximity

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 31 October 2013

On July 22nd 2011, I was home from work when I heard a loud blast. It sounded like thunder. Strange that I had not seen any lightning, with a sound this loud, I thought before carrying on with household chores. Half an hour later I took a break, logging onto ... Read more »

The Ethics in Free Speech

Posted by Henrik Syse & Odin Lysaker on Wednesday, 30 October 2013

”This is moralism‘, we were told after having published an op-ed in one of the largest Norwegian newspapers, Aftenposten, in June 2013. This reaction made us even more curious about whether ethics is of any relevance to citizens’ freedom of expression. In our view, the critique is due to the ... Read more »

Ethical Challenges of Internet Research on 22/7

Posted by Mareile Kaufmann on Tuesday, 25 June 2013

For my research on post-22/7 resilience and social media, I am drawing on data sources from the internet. Even though this data is publicly available, there are several ethical issues to be considered. A core controversy of internet-based research is the definition of public and private space: speakers may assume ... Read more »