Regulating Cyberwar: Understanding Challenges to Norwegian Security and International Law

Led by Kristin Bergtora Sandvik
Jan 2011 - Dec 2015

​​​​​​Cyberwar is gaining recognition as a “fifth battlefield”. It is also becoming evident that a well-organized Computer Network Attack (CNA) may harm Norway’s vital infrastructure. This project proposes to examine the legal challenges that arise with respect to the development of effective international and national strategies to prevent, regulate and resolve cyberwar. How can we develop legal mechanisms and procedures that allow for cyber security threats to be properly assessed? Which legal considerations and constraints should shape the development of civilian cybersecurity institutions? In creating a legal regime for Cyberwarfare, what dilemmas arise?​​​

Research Groups


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The humanitarian cyberspace: shrinking space or an expanding frontier?, Third World Quarterly 37(1): 17–32.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2014) Teknologi og det humanitære fornyelsesprosjektet [Technology and the Humanitarian Renewal Project], Internasjonal Politikk(2): 272–281.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & John Karlsrud (2014) Ny humanitær teknologi - en kritisk forskningsagenda [New humanitarian technologies - a critical research agenda], Internasjonal Politikk(2): 224–233.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Cyberkrig og internasjonal rett, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 252–262.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Hans-Inge Giske Langø (2013) Cyberspace og sikkerhet, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 221–228.

Book Chapter

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Law in the militarization of cyber space: framing a critical research agenda, in Friis, Karsten; & Jens Ringsmose, eds, Conflict in Cyber Space: Theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge (175–197).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Political and Moral Economies of Dual Technology Transfers: Arming Police Drones, in Aleš Završnik, ed., Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance. Berlin: Springer International Publishing (45–66).

Edited Volume

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, (2016) The Good Drone. Oxon, New York: Routledge.

Popular Article

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; John Karlsrud & Chris Wilson (2014) A Humanitarian Technology Policy Agenda for 2016, ATHA.SE the Advanced Training Program on Humanitarian Action, 30 June.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maral Mirshahi & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Killer robots – hvorfor ønsker man et forbud? [Killer Robots - The Quest for a Ban], NRK Ytring, 12 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Nicholas Marsh & Maral Mirshahi (2014) The Struggle to Ban Killer Robots, Bullentin of Atomic Scientists, 7 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2013) The promise and perils of ‘disaster drones’, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine 58, 1 July.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra ubemannede fly til drapsroboter [From UAVs to killer robots], NRK Ytring, 27 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Droner truer demokratiet, Klassekampen, .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2011) Morgendagens Kriger [Tomorrow's Wars], Aftenposten, 20 June.

Conference Paper

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Drone Pilots, Humanitarians and the Videogame Analogy: Unpacking the ConversationTrondheim, 5–7 February.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra dronekrig til UAV i det sivile luftrom - Globale trender og utfordringerLuftfartskonferansen 2013, Bodø.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2013Internasjonal rett og militariseringen av cyberspace, presented at Fokus: Cyberspace og sikkerhet.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Technology Transfers from the Military to the Humanitarian Field: the Rise of the Humanitarian Drone, presented at Humanitarianism: Past, Present, Future, , .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Robot Technology and the Drone Stare: Seeing or Unseeing Humanitarian Suffering?, presented at Political Theatres of Suffering: Humanitarian Politics and Representation of Distant Suffering, , .

PRIO Policy Brief

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Cyberwar as an Issue of International law, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Towards a Militarization of Cyberspace-Cyberwar as an Issue of International Law, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - External Series

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Drone Pilots, Humanitarians and the Videogame Analogy: Unpacking the Conversation, UAV – bare ny teknologi eller en ny strategisk virkelighet? Luftkrigsskolens skriftserie volum 29 , 29. Trondheim: Luftkrigsskolen.

Past Events