• Type: Internal
  • Side A: Colombia
  • Side B: FARC, ELN, M-19, EPL


Bergquist, Charles; Ricardo Penaranda & Gonzalo Sanchez, eds (1991) Violence in Colombia: The Contemporary Crisis in Historical Perspective. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc.
Bushnell, David A. (1993) The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Carroll, Leah Anne (2011) Violent Democratization: Social Movements, Elites, and Politics in Colombia's Rural War Zones, 1984-2008. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Comisión de Estudios sobre la Violencia (1987) Colombia: violencia y democracia. Bogotá: Colciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Dudley, Steven (2003) Walking Ghosts: Murder and Guerrilla Politics in Colombia. New York: Routledge.
Kirk, Robin (2003) More Terrible than Death: Massacres, Drugs, and America's War in Colombia. Cambridge: PublicAffairs.
Livingstone, Grace (2004) Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy and War. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Restrepo, Jorge A. & David Aponte, eds (2009) Guerras y violencias en Colombia: Herramientas e interpretaciones. Bogota: Pontifica Universidad Javeriana.
Restrepo, Jorge; Michael Spagat & Juan FernandoVargas (2004) The Dynamics of the Colombian Civil Conflict: A New Data Set, Homo Oeconomicus 21: 396–428.
Richani, Nazih (2013) Systems of Violence: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Colombia. Second edition. Albany: SUNY Press.
Romero, Mauricio (2003) Paramilitares y autodefensas, 1982–2003. Bogotá: Instituto de Estudios Politicos y Relaciones Internacionales. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. [For English version of arguments see Romero, Mauricio (2000) Changing Identities and Contested Settings: Regional Elites and the Paramilitaries in Colombia, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 14(1) 51-69.]
Sanin, Francisco Gutíerrez (2008) Telling the Difference: Guerrillas and Paramilitaries in the Colombian War, Politics & Society 36(1): 3-34.
Solimano, Andrés, ed (2000) Colombia: Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Waldmann, Peter (2007) Is There a Culture of Violence in Colombia? Terrorism and Political Violence 19(4): 593-609.