1990-1994, 1996-2002, 2009-12

  • Type: Internal/internationalized
  • Side A: Rwanda
  • Side B: FPR, ALiR, Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda (FDLR)


Adelman, Howard & Astri Suhrke (1999) The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
André, Catherine & Jean-Philippe Platteau (1998) Land Relations under Unbearable Stress: Rwanda Caught in the Malthusian Trap, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 34(1): 1-47.
Des Forges, Alison (1999) Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Lemarchand, Renè (2009) The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Lemarchand, René (2013) Rwanda: The State Of Research. Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence. URL: [Retrieved 24.1.2014].
Mamdani, Mahmood (2001) When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Prunier, Gérard (1995) The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rafti, Marina (2006) Rwandan Hutu Rebels in Congo/Zaire, 1994-2006: An Extraterritorial Civil War in a Weak State?, in Filip Reyntjens & Stefaan Marysse, eds., L’Afrique des Grand Lacs. Annuaire 2005-2006. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Reyntjens, Filip (1996) Rwanda: Genocide and Beyond, Journal of Refugee Studies 9(3): 240-251.
Reyntjens, Filip (2004) Rwanda, Ten Years On: From Genocide to Dictatorship, African Affairs 103(411): 177-210.
Strauss Scott & Lars Waldorf (2011) Remaking Rwanda. State Building and Human Rights after Mass Violence. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Verpoorten, Marijke (2012) Leave None to Claim the Land. A Malthusian Catastrophe in Rwanda?, Journal of Peace Research. 49(4): 547-563.
Verwimp, Philip (2013) Peasants in Power: A Political Economy of Development and Genocide in Rwanda. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York and London: Springer.