• Type: Internal
  • Side A: Panama
  • Side B: Military faction (forces of Moisés Giroldi)


Ropp, Steve C. (1992) Explaining the Long-Term Maintenance of a Military Regime: Panama before the U.S. Invasion, World Politics 44(2): 210-234.
Yates, Lawrence A. (2008) The U.S. Military Intervention in Panama: Origins, Planning, and Crisis Management, June 1987 – December 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History. URL: [Retrieved 24-1-2014].