1978-1982, 1985-1987, 1991-1992

  • Territory: Basque
  • Type: Internal
  • Side A: Spain
  • Side B: Basque Nation and Liberty (ETA)


Abadie, Alberto & Javier Gardeazabal (2003) The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country, American Economic Review 93(1): 113-132.
Douglass, William A. & Joseba Zulaika (1990) On the Interpretation of Terrorist Violence: ETA and the Basque Political Process, Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(2): 238-257.
Irvin, Cynthia L. (1999) Militant Nationalism: Between Movement and Party in Ireland and the Basque Country. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Muro, Diego (2013) Ethnicity and Violence: The Case of Radical Basque Nationalism. New York and London: Routledge.