1982-1984, 1986-1996, 2001-2002, 2006-2012

  • Type: Internal/internationalized
  • Side A: Somalia
  • Side B: SSDF, SNM, SPM, USC/SSA, USC/SNA, SRRC, ARS/UIC, Al-Shabaab, ARS/UIC, Harakat Ras Kamboni, Hizbul-Islam


Clapham, Christopher (2012) Peacebuilding without a State: The Somali Experience, in Devon Curtis & Gwinyayi A. Dzinesa, eds., Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press (295-309 ).
Hansen, Stig Jarle (2013) Al-Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Idelolgy of a Militant Islamist Group, 2005-2012. London: Hurst.
Harper, Mary (2012) Getting Somalia Wrong: Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State. London: Zed Books.
Kapteijns, Lidwien (2012) Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Menkhaus, Ken (2004) Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.